Scene 5 08:14
Scene 9 01:59
Scene 10 09:52

Liner Notes

Amram’s second opera, The Final Ingredient, with a libretto by Arnold Weinstein, was commissioned in 1965 by the ABC television network in cooperation with the Jewish Theological Seminary for broadcast that year on the Seminary’s national program, Directions. The libretto was based on a play by Reginald Rose, which takes place at the infamous German concentration camp Bergen-Belsen.

The opera is related to the Holocaust in terms of its specific situation and its backdrop, but it is not so much a drama about the Holocaust as it is about faith, Jewish national survival, the rediscovery of heritage, and the triumph of the spirit over degradation and oppression. ABC, however, was more concerned with its Passover dimension, and they conceived of it as a potential “Passover opera” that might be shown annually—almost as a Jewish counterpart to Menotti’s Amahl and the Night Visitors and its place as an annual Christmas-related opera.

The plot concerns a group of Belsen inmates at Passover in 1944. Although the observance of Passover is not even required by Jewish law under such life-threatening and dire circumstances, the inmates determine to improvise a seder—the annual Passover home ritual that recounts the biblical story of the ancient Israelites’ exodus from Egypt and their liberation from slavery so that they could receive the Torah at Mount Sinai as a free people and take possession of their land. At every seder, each Jew is supposed to regard himself as if he were personally brought out of Egypt on that ancient night. Thus the seder is a reaffirmation not only of Jewish national existence in collective terms, but also of each individual Jew’s identification with the Jewish people. For this group in The Final Ingredient, their determination to hold a seder, however primitive it might be, represents their refusal to succumb to defeat or to renounce either their faith or their perpetual Jewish distinctness. This seder becomes an act of spiritual defiance.

The inmates must first assemble the ritual seder table. For this they need to locate or fashion substitutes for the required food items and symbols used to explain the principal themes in the telling (haggada) of the story and in considering the significance of the Festival and its observance. Obviously, in the concentration camp, they cannot find the necessary items. Rather, those items must be metaphoric versions of the traditional symbols—which also relate to their present situation. They have managed to provide something to represent all the items but one: the egg for the seder plate, where it serves as a memorial to the burnt sacrificial Festival offering in the ancient Temple in Jerusalem (zekher l’hagiga). The association of the egg with the seder has acquired additional aspects and points of significance, which have generated a variety of explanations. Among those is the egg as a symbol of regeneration and of the continuum of the life cycle.

Just outside the barbed-wire fence of the compound, there is a small tree on whose branch is a bird’s nest with eggs in it. Eli, a fellow inmate, tries to persuade a young man named Aaron to risk the dangers of scaling the fence to procure one of the eggs, since only Aaron has enough remaining physical strength. But Aaron is interested neither in the seder nor in any Judaic observance. He has rejected Judaism since childhood, which has placed him at odds with his father and his father’s religious concerns, and there is lingering antagonism and resentment in their relationship. Moreover, Aaron has succumbed to total despair. “No one cares less than I,” he sings in the opening scene (not recorded here), not even the dead—not even those murdered there by the Germans—“whom we bury every day by the hundreds.” So complete is that despair that as the curtain rises, he admonishes the bird that it has no right to sing: “Who are you to sing, bird? Don’t you know, God has told each creature that we are here on earth to suffer? No, you poor deluded bird …” Those words sum up his spiritual defeat. For Aaron, there is no purpose in a seder—no purpose in reaffirming Jewishness, survival, freedom, or anything else. Nothing has any meaning.

Aaron’s elderly father—who, with the others, still clings to his belief—tries to persuade Aaron to go after the egg, even in the absence of faith. He asks it simply as a father’s request of a son. But Aaron still refuses. When Walter, another inmate, asks if their suffering cannot be allowed to provide some lesson for future generations—if at least they will have died for a cause—Aaron replies that there is no cause and nothing to learn or be learned: “World, rummage through the ashes! Nothing will you learn. Look for no lessons.”

Scene 5 (the first of the three excerpted here) takes place in the women’s barracks, where the women—their babies in their arms—are mourning those who have already been murdered by the Germans. Their hummed lament becomes a lullaby to their babies, while the guards taunt and mock them by calling to be entertained and heckling them to sing louder and more lustily. Such demands were not unfamiliar in the camps, and they had roots in medieval incidents. The women responded by singing Psalm 137 (al naharot bavel—By the Rivers of Babylon), which refers to the Babylonian captivity following the destruction of the First Temple in Jerusalem. In that scenario, too, the Babylonian captors made similar mocking demands that their captives sing them their “song of Zion.” But that Psalm also contains assurance of eventual Divine restoration: “If I forget thee, O Jerusalem …” In the following scenes (also not recorded here) Aaron ultimately accedes to his father’s plea, but only after witnessing and being moved by the guards’ vicious brutality. First his father attempts yet again (still in vain) to prevail upon Aaron by recalling his earlier bravery and sense of compassion. He reminds Aaron of an incident in his youth when he overcame his fear and climbed a much more forbidding tree in order to restore a bird’s nest filled with hatching eggs that had been dislodged by a windstorm and was dangling from a branch. But Aaron remains unmoved, as if embarrassed by the reminder of his youthful deed.

Whether or not they were known to the playwright and librettist, there are irresistible talmudic and rabbinic echoes here, rooted in two biblical commandments. One of those commandments (Deuteronomy 22:6–7) prohibits the taking of a mother bird from a nest while she is sitting on eggs or tending to her young; and, in the event that one must take either the young or the eggs (highly unlikely, since they would have scarcely any food value), he must first shoo away the mother bird, taking the young or the eggs only in her absence. Keeping that commandment carries with it the reward of prolonged life—one of only two of the 613 commandments in the Torah that have this reward specifically attached to them. The other is the commandment to honor one’s parents (Exodus 20:12 and Deuteronomy 5:16). Comparison of those commandments has not been lost on rabbinic commentators, who have found meaning in the provision of the same reward for two unrelated commandments: one of the least significant and one of the most important—what may be the easiest and what may be the most complicated and difficult ones to observe. In an account in the Talmud (kiddushin 39b, hullin 142a), the great sage turned apostate Elisha ben Abuya (first half of the 2nd century C.E.) is said to have witnessed a father instructing his son to climb a tree to fetch chicks from a nest. The lad does so, remembering to observe the provisions of the related commandment, but he is killed falling from the tree. Some have attributed Elisha ben Abuya’s renouncement of Judaism to that incident. The son had obediently fulfilled two commandments promising long life: he had honored his father by following his instructions, and he had remembered to shoo away the mother bird.

In Amram’s opera, only when Aaron witnesses the guard brutally beating his father—after discovering hidden wooden clubs that he and the other inmates were intending to use in making a ladder to scale the fence—does Aaron change course in an instant and determine to honor his father’s wish. It is Aaron’s revelatory moment. Despite his earlier protestations, there remains within him a dual spark of defiance and Jewish connection—a spark ignited as the threat of physical terror and humiliation becomes even more real and more personal for him. While the other inmates stage a diversion, he successfully scales the fence and snatches the egg, but he is shot and killed by the guards as he returns with it. For his father, heard in his anguish as Scene 9 opens, Aaron has died with some purpose after all—and as a Jew once again. “Now he believes!” cries the distraught father over Aaron’s lifeless body. He summons forth the words of the central monotheistic Judaic credo and proclamation of faith that Jews recite twice daily in their prayers, as well as, when possible, at the moment of imminent death. Even though it is too late for Aaron, his father calls upon him to “Say it with me, Aaron my son.” The other inmates respond in repetition, refusing to permit their tormentors to rob them of the only thing they have left—their unalloyed faith.

In Scenes 9 and 10, the inmates make their final preparations for Passover and for the seder. As one of the men tosses out the rotted loaf of forbidden bread that the guards have left them for their daily ration, another man symbolically recites the customary pronouncement, normally invoked on the night before the eve of Passover, that no hametz (leaven)—any food items or ingredients forbidden on Passover—remains in their possession. (Of course, they can be only “symbolically” free of hametz in the camp.) As their seder commences, the participants refer to the various symbols. Max holds up a piece of improvised matza, which they have baked in secret from a handful of stolen flour, and he recalls the prescribed Aramaic words from the haggada that refer to matza as the “bread of affliction” and invite “all who are hungry” to partake. Another inmate, Walter, substitutes a clump of freshly pulled grass for the prescribed bitter herb (maror), which traditionally symbolizes the bitterness of Egyptian slavery. For the inmates, it is this “bitter” grass upon which they must “walk in slavery.” A handful of earth replaces the usual sweetened condiment, the haroset, which is eaten at the seder as a reminder of the bricks and mortar used by the Israelite slaves in their forced labor for the Egyptian pharaohs. Instead of the usual salted water for dipping a vegetable (the karpas, or “fruit of the earth”) before proceeding to the full deliberations on the Passover story, their actual human tears are used to represent the tears of bondage. Under normal circumstances, a lamb or other shank bone is required for the seder. It symbolizes the burnt sacrificial offering in the ancient Temple in Jerusalem, and it also symbolizes the paschal lamb the Israelites sacrificed and roasted in preparation for the exodus from Egypt—which was to be eaten together with matza and bitter herbs on the eve of the exodus and whose blood was wiped on the doorposts and lintels of the Israelite dwellings to signal the “angel of death” to “pass over” their homes when visiting the tenth plague upon the Egyptians. Aaron’s father provides his dead son’s belt as a substitute, proclaiming that “his lamb” had been slaughtered by the Germans. And the egg that Aaron retrieved now symbolizes for them the eternal survival of the Jewish people and the perpetual regeneration of its spirit despite the avowed genocide in progress.

At the conclusion of a seder, Jews customarily pronounce their hope that the messianic era will have arrived by the next year: “Next year in Jerusalem! This year we have celebrated Passover in the diaspora; next year at this time may we do so in Jerusalem as an ingathered and reunited people.” The inmates, too, hold out that hopeful expectation, noting that their diaspora context this year has been “the bloody earth of Belsen.”

The opera concludes with the communal singing of Yigdal elohim hai, a stalwart hymn of faith based on Maimonides’ “thirteen principles of faith” but erroneously referred to in the libretto as a “hymn of rejoicing.” Yigdal is not part of the seder ritual, although it can be sung at the conclusion of the Passover eve service that precedes the seder, as well as on other liturgical occasions. But it was employed here by the librettist in an exercise of artistic license, probably because of its theologically powerful statements.

Unlike the Holocaust itself, which is not an appropriate transcendent metaphor for broader humanistic or universal themes—or for anything that diffuses its historical centrality as the planned, calculated, and culminating annihilation of the Jewish people by a highly developed Western society with no scarcity of willing collaborators—this particular story can support, on its own terms, universal parallels and lessons. Indeed, Amram was attracted to what he perceived as its universal message: the consequences of hatred.

By: Neil W. Levin





[The women’s compound. The women are humming as if they are praying for the dead. Three women step forward. Another places her baby in a battered homemade rocker and begins to sing a lullaby. Soon all the women join in.]

Lullaby, lullaby, sleep, sleep, my baby, lullaby, lullaby ... Sleep in peace, my little child. Dream tonight, God will right all your sorrows, dear. Sleep, my little baby, hear our lullaby.

[The Guards in the tower rise.]

Singen Sie laut meine Damen. (Sing loudly, ladies.)

Singen Sie laut und lustig. (Sing loudly and merrily.)

Ich will etwas lustiges. (I want to hear something cheerful.)

Singen Sie laut, meine Damen, bitte lauter schöne Damen. (Sing loudly ladies, please; sing even louder, pretty ladies.)

They want us to sing. Do you hear them?

Well, we have sung before in captivity.

Sing to us the song of Zion. Sing us the Psalm of our people in captivity.

[The third woman begins singing Psalm 137 as the other women accompany her.]

By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea we wept when we remembered Zion. We hanged our harps upon the willows on the midst thereof. For they that carried us away captive, they asked of us a song. And our tormentors asked of us mirth, saying, “Sing us one of the songs of Zion.” How shall we sing the Lord’s song in a foreign land?

If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning if I do not remember thee.

O, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth if I set not Jerusalem above my chief joy.

Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem who said raze it, raze it ... even to the foundation thereof.

Oh, daughter of Babylon that art to be destroyed, happy shall he be that repayeth thee as thou hast served us. Happy shall he be that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the rock.


[The prison barracks. The door opens, and Max, Walter, Eli, and a fourth prisoner enter. They close the door and stand grouped in the doorway, exhausted and shocked at Aaron’s death. The other prisoners, barely able to move, crowd around them.]

Aaron is dead.

[Some of the prisoners lower their  heads. Eli holds up the egg.]

He brought this back. They’ll be coming soon. Well, what are we waiting for? It’s time.

[Eli pulls open the door. The men follow him out into the darkness.]

[Max walks over to the bucket of soup and bread. He picks up the loaf, looks at it. He throws it away. The prisoners watch the bread hungrily but make no move.]

Any leaven which remains in my possession, and which I have not seen or removed, shall be as if it were not, and of no more account than the dust of the earth.

[Max walks out into the darkness. The others follow.]


[As the last of them came out, two prisoners carry the rabbi. A file of men approach from the other direction. They begin to form a large circle. They sit on the ground in the darkness, facing the center. Eli stands and walks to the center of the circle. He takes a package of yarmulkes made of crude scraps of cloth from his clothes. He puts one on his head and passes a few to one of the prisoners, who gives them out to the men.]

Our women made these for us. They expect that we shall wear them proudly.

[He hands the other yarmulkes to be passed around.]

Now this is our Passover seder! And no man will stop us from having it! We celebrate our people’s flight to freedom from Egypt and the bonds of slavery, as Jews have celebrated for thousands of years.

[Max walks to the center of the circle and takes out packages from underneath his jacket. He opens one and presents a thin, jagged cracker, which he holds up.]

As Jews have celebrated for thousands of years.

This is our unleavened bread, the bread of wretchedness, which our forefathers ate in Egypt. It was baked from a handful of stolen flour. Let those who are hungry enter and eat.

[Eli sets the packages down on the ground, and Max moves back in his place. Walter rises and walks to the center of the circle. He rips a clump of grass from the ground and holds it up.]

This is our bitter herb, the grass on which we walk in slavery as our fathers walked and wept in Egypt.

This is our Passover seder, and no man will stop us. Nothing will stop us tonight.

[Walter puts the grass down next to the matzas and walks back in place. The rabbi moves slowly to the center of the circle. He scoops up a handful of earth from the ground.]

This is our ḥaroset—not apples and cinnamon and nuts, but a handful of the earth to make us remember the clay with which our fathers in Egypt wrought bricks.

[The rabbi returns to his place as Felix comes to the center of the circle, holding the tin cans the old man had hidden. He then holds them up.]

This is our parsley, the fruit of the earth, for which we give thanks. There is no salt here. Each man will dip his parsley into the salt of his tears.

[Felix moves from the circle. Sigmund enters and holds up a wooden cup with water in it. He pulls a stem with three withered grapes from his pocket.]

Three grapes bought with the gold from our teeth.

[He holds the grapes over the cup and crushes them in his fist.]

This is our wine.

[Sigmund sets the cup next to the matzas and leaves the center of the circle. Eli enters and holds up a tiny bird’s egg. He holds it high for all to see, with dignity.]

This egg is the symbol of our immortality. Here tonight our Aaron gave his life that we might have it. Remember him until the day you die. Remember him.

[A squad of German soldiers approaches. Eli leaves the center of the circle, and the Old Man takes his place. He takes a piece of rope and holds it up.]

We sacrificed a lamb in Egypt once. We place a shank bone on our tables to remember this. Tonight a lamb was sacrificed. He was my son. My one and only son. This was his belt. This is our shank bone! Our Passover seder is ready. For tonight and for all times it is the symbol of freedom. This year our seder is held on the bloody earth of Belsen.

[Triumphantly shaking his fist at the guard]

L’shana haba, birushalayim! (Next year in Jerusalem!)

L’shana haba, birushalayim!

Next year in Jerusalem! Sing praises to God, begin our song tonight with Yigdal, the hymn of rejoicing.

[All the prisoners sing this ancient prayer of rejoicing in Hebrew as the German guards watch in silence.]

yigdal elohim hai v’yishtabaḥ,
nimtza v’ein et el m’tziuto.
eḥod v’ein yaḥid k’yiḥudo,
ne’lam v’gam ein sof l’aḥduto.
ein lo d’mut haguf v’eino guf,
lo na’aroḥ elayv k’dushato.
kadmon l’khol davar asher nivra,
rishon v’ein reshit l’reshito.
hino adon olam l’khol notzar
yore g’dulato u’malkhuto.
shefa n’vuato n’tano,
el anshei s’gulato v’tifarto.
lo kam b’yisra’el k’moshe od,
navi umabit et t’munato
torat emet natan l’amo el,
al yad n’vi’o ne’eman beito.

lo yaḥalif ha’el v’lo yamir dato,
l’olamim l’zulato.
tzofe v’yode’a s’sareinu,
mabit l’sof davar b’kadmato.
gomel l’ish ḥesed k’mifalo,
noten l’rasha ra k’rishato.
yishlaḥ l’ketz ha’yomin m’shiḥenu,
lifdot m’ḥakei ketz y’shuato.
metim yha’ye el b’rov ḥasdo,
barukh adei ad shem t’hilato.

(We exalt and praise the presence of the living God;
His existence and being transcend all time—was, is and will forever be.
His essence is unity—His uniqueness lies in His oneness, He is unlike any other unity;
That oneness is inscrutable and without end.
He has no physical form—nor anything even corresponding to form;
His holiness is incomparable; His holiness is unimaginable.
He preexisted all of His creations—
Was and always has been the beginning, the first of all that ever was.
He is the Master of all creation;
All creatures reflect His dominion and majesty.
He abundantly shared His prophecy with His beloved and treasured people.
Never among Israel has anyone appeared who could in greatness compare with Moses, our prophet,
Whose closeness to God exceeded that of all others.
God gave to His people a Torah of truth
Through the agency of His faithful prophet, Moses.
God neither amends His law nor changes its character;
His precepts remain forever, for eternity.
He searches out and understands our deepest and most hidden secrets;
He knows every ending at its very beginning.
He rewards the pious according to their deeds,
And repays evildoers in proportion to their guilt.
He will send our messiah at the End of Days,
To bring redemption to those who faithfully wait.
With the greatest of loving-kindness God will bring the dead to eternal life;
Praised be His glorious name for all eternity.)



Composer: David Amram

Length: 20:08
Genre: Opera

Performers: Jesse Blumberg, Baritone;  Thomas Glenn, Tenor;  Mark Kent, Bass;  Kenneth Kiesler, Conductor;  Tyler Oliphant, Baritone;  Brian Pfaltzgraf, Tenor;  Nicholas Phan, Tenor;  Deborah Selig, Soprano;  University of Michigan Opera Theater;  Pei Yi Wang, Mezzo-soprano;  Sarah Elizabeth Williams, Mezzo-soprano

Date Recorded: 01/01/2001
Venue: Hill Auditorium/University of Michigan (B), Ann Arbor, Michigan
Engineer: Tom Lazarus (Recording), Marc Stedman (Editing)
Assistant Engineer: Nunes, Michelle
Assistant Engineer: Frost, David
Project Manager: Lee, Richard

Additional Credits:

Publisher: C. F. Peters Corp


Don't miss our latest releases, podcasts, announcements and giveaways throughout the year! Stay up to date with our newsletter.

{{msToTime(currentPosition)}} / {{msToTime(duration)}}