Essays

Hidden Treasures

An Annotated Survey of Jewish Worship Services Written for Cantor, Choir, and Organ

By: Charles Davidson

Oct 1, 2018

 

A period of heightened Jewish musical activity was underway during the years following World War II, in a real sense promoted by the newly aggregate Jewish communities surrounding New York City. A sizeable library of formal Friday Evening and Saturday Morning “Services” meant to be performed by cantor, choir and organ, was created; these were written by Jewish composers living in America. At the center of this creative flourish were the Jewish Music publishers: Bloch Publishing, Mills Music, Horizon and Transcontinental Music Publications. The services, mostly written between 1950 and 1980, are on the edge of historical erase.

In the years following the end of World War II there was a major emigration eastward of the Jewish populations of Brooklyn and the Bronx. Many Jewish veterans, just returned from long years of war, forsook the apartments and heat of the city and turned toward the green fields of Long Island. While others may have moved north toward New Rochelle, White Plains and Scarsdale, the majority edged toward the east, moving further away from the city year by year, taking their growing families into homogenized communities with identical houses and shopping centers tied to the city by the Long Island Railroad. Moving into quiet towns and hamlets, displacing farms and potato fields on the way, these new Jewish communities stretched to the north and south shores of Long Island from Syosset, Hempstead, Levittown and Port Washington to Roslyn, Rockville Centre, Seaford, Wantagh and Massapequa and then eastward toward Jericho, Babylon and Montauk. As well, the new Jewish communities worshipped in strikingly designed synagogues and temples fully staffed with rabbis and cantors, organs and professional as well as amateur choirs.

In recent times American synagogues and temples have redefined their musical requirements. The new genre of music created for contemporary Jewish worship is of a simple and uncomplicated nature. Many Reform temples and some Conservative synagogues, that had presented more formal services, no longer use organs or employ professional choirs; in their place are guitars or piano. The music that had been written for cantor, choir and organ is no longer in use nor are the scores readily available for performance or study.

Some of the works listed in the following survey do not fit the post-World War II chronology of this study or were not written for cantor, choir and organ: however, they are still part of the legacy (these services have been marked with ***). It is also acknowledged that the compositions listed here constitute a relatively small percentage of the larger body of work. Mention should be made of the involvement of Dr. Josef Freudenthal (owner and editor of Transcontinental Music Publications) who published the majority of the services listed here and of Cantor David J. Putterman, who through his position at New York’s prestigious Park Avenue Synagogue, commissioned some of the more important works.

The remarks and directions of the composers about their music, as well as biographical information about them, as found in the introductions and prefaces of these works, might be of at least an importance proportional to the music itself. The standings of the composers of these pieces in the world of general music vary from positions of prominence to those of lesser stature. It is hoped that these scores will be housed together and will be available to scholars of Jewish music. The works marked with an asterisk invite further analysis; those double-asterisked are of particular importance.

(Note: Transliterations of Hebrew, capitalizations and other details are as in the printed services.)

Achron, Joseph: Evening Service for the Sabbath, Op. 67, Bloch Publishing Company, 1932, 41 pages.

Comments:
Prodigy violinist, many performances and recitals in the 1920’s, member of the St. Petersburg Society for Jewish Folk Music, an early champion of Jewish music, composer of orchestral works. Schoenberg is quoted as saying “one of the most underrated modern composers.” After emigrating to America he wrote music for and played in the orchestra for Hollywood films. This service was written for Temple Emanu- El of New York and scored for Baritone Solo and Mixed Voices. Opening thematic motives in octaves reminiscent of his “Hebrew Lullaby,” cantillation motives throughout, modal cadences, major 7ths and 9ths, often consecutive fifths and octave chords used step-wise, sequences. Mi Chamocha is lyrical, motivic, flowing. Adon Olam is an extended fugue. At the time of this writing there existed an Achron Society dedicated to performing and printing his music.

Contents:
Mizmor Shir L’yom Hashabos, Bor’chu I-II, Sh’ma I-II, Mi Chomocho I-II, V’shomru I, II-III, May The Words I-II, Kiddush, L’cho Dodee, Adonoy Moloch, Shiru Ladonoy, L’chu N’rannoh, Adoration and Amen, Sabbath–Hymns: A. Lord in this sacred hour, B. Rest in the Lord, C. Adon Olom.

Adler, Hugo Ch.: Avodath Habonim, Congregational and Children Service for Sabbath and Festivals For Unison Or Two Part Chorus With Organ Accompaniment; Transcontinental Music Corporation, 1943, 46 pages.

Adler remarks:
“More and more the active participation of youth in our religious Services becomes desirable and imperative. This book, the result of many years of practical experience, was intended to stimulate the introduction of such services. The melodies can be sung by a unison children chorus with or without cantor; by two solo voices; by two part women or children chorus; or—last but not least—by the congregation itself.” 

Comments:
A tuneful collection of useful material with inventive accompaniments. The “last but not least” phrase indicates that Reform services were an adult pursuit in 1943.

Contents:
Mah Tovu, Shachar Avakeshcho, Tov Lehodos Ladonoy, An’im Zemiros, Somachti Beomrim Li (Psalm 122), Horiu Ladonoy (Psalm 100), Bor’chu I (Lewandowski), Bor’chu II, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho I (Lewandowski), Mi Chomocho II, Sanctification I (Sulzer), Sanctification II (Based on Lewandowski), Retzeh, May The Words, Hallel (Psalms 113 and 117), Hodu Ladonoy and Ono Adonoy For All Occasions (Based on Naumbourg), Hodu Ladonoy and Ono Adonoy for Pesach, Hodu Ladonoy and Ono Adonoy for Succoth, Odecho (Based on Haendel), Eyn Komocho, Adonoy, Adonoy (Lewandowski), Seu Sheorim (Adapted from Lewandowski), Hovu Godel and Shema, Lecho Adonoy (Ephros), Blessings over the Torah, Gadlu and Hodo Al Eretz (Lewandowski), Etz Chayim I (Lewandowski), Etz Chayim II (Based on Idelsohn), Adoration I (Lewandowski), Adoration II, On That Day, Bayom Hahu, Amen (After the Benediction, Eyn Keloheynu (Freudenthal).

Adler, Hugo Ch.: Solo Service for Sabbath Eve, For Medium Voice With Organ: Transcontinental Music Corporation, 1953, 35 pages.

In the foreword the composer says:
“Realizing the need of a Service for a single voice, I have prepared this music, based on traditional modes of the Friday Evening Prayers and Psalms. The accompaniment ... never intrudes upon the essential simplicity of the tunes. Added to the regular Service are four Sabbath Hymns which can be used for congregational singing as Anthems or concluding Hymns.”


Comments:
Straight forward and interesting. The simple accompaniment supports the melodies. One must comment on the great difference in harmonic approach between Adler’s Avodath Habonim (expected classical harmony and progressions) and this piece (diminished and consecutive seventh chords, unexpected cadences). Adler turns to plagal cadences with the lowered 7th scale step used harmonically when in the Adonai Malach mode.

Contents:
Mizmor shir l’yom hashabbos, Borchu I, Borchu II, Sh’ma I, Sh’ma II, Mi chomocho I, Mi chomocho II, V’shomru I, V’shomru II, V’shomru II, Yism’chu, May the words I, May the words II, Kiddush, L’cho dodee, Adonoy moloch, Shiru ladonoy, L’chu n’rannoh, Adoration and Amen, Sabbath–Hymns: A, Lord in this sacred hour, B. Rest in the Lord, C. Adon olom (trad.).

Adler, Samuel: BeShaaray Tefialla (Within The Gates of Prayer), Friday Eve and Saturday Morning Service; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1963, 51 pages. (Full Score and orchestral parts on rental)

Comments:
An imposing figure in American music, Adler has been “a unique phenomenon among those established mainstream American composers whose Jewish identities have informed a part of their art” (Neil W. Levin, biographical sketch of Samuel Adler). Obviously a serious and major work by a major Jewish composer. By 1963 Adler had already made a name for himself as a composer, teacher and Jewish personality. The music is motivic throughout, contrapuntal at times, accompaniment often doubles voice parts, some cantorial flourishes, dramatic and effective.

Contents:
Organ Solo, Mah Tovu, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, V’ohavto, Mi Chomocho a) Malchus’cho (On Friday Eve) b) Shiroh Chadoshoh (On Sabbath Morning) c) Adonoy Yimloch and Tsur Yisroel, Ovos, K’dushah, R’tsey, Silent Devotion and May The Words, Torah Service, Part 1) S’u Sh’orim b) Hovu Godel c) Boruch Shenosan Torah d) Beys Yaakov e) Sh’ma Yisroel f) L‘cho Adonoy, Torah Service, Part 2 a) Gadlu and Hodo Al Erets b) Toras Adonoy T’mimoh c) Eyts Chayim and Hashiveynu, Adoration, Adon Olom, Additional Prayers for Friday Eve: L’cho Dodi, V’shomru, Kiddush, Benediction.

Adler, Samuel: Shiru Ladonoy, Sing Unto The Lord, Solo Service for Friday Evening; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1965, 28 pages.
Comments:
The service is written in a simple and folk-like style.

Contents:
Tsadik Katomor, L’cho Dodi (for the First Service), L’cho Dodi (For the Second Service) Or Zarua (For the Third Service), Horiu Ladonoy (For the Fourth Service), L’chu N’ran’no (For the Fifth Service), Bor’chu, Ahavas Olom, Sh’ma Yisroeyl, Mi Chomocho, V’ne-emar, Yism’chu, V’shomru, Silent Devotion and May The Words, Adoration a) Va-anachnu, b) On that Day, Three Amens, Two Benedictions: 1. For the Candle-Lighting Service, The Shehecheyonu.

Adler, Samuel: Yamim Noraim (Days of Awe), Vol. I, Compiled and Edited, Transcontinental Music Publications, 1972, 125 pages.

In the preface Adler writes that he has gathered music by various composers and added his own settings hoping that the collection will “give a continuity to the High Holiday Services as well as set the noble mood that should pervade our High Holiday worship.” There follow 35 compositions by composers Hugo Ch. Adler, Max Janowsky, Herbert Fromm, Lazar Saminsky, Charles Davidson, Isadore Freed, Michael Isaacson and Emmanuel Kirschner each written in the composer’s style. Worth reviewing.

Algazi, Leon: Service Sacré, Pour Le Samedi Matin (For Sabbath Morning), Pour le Vendredi (For Friday Evening)Soir, pour Officiant (Cantor), Choeur Mixte et Orchestre ou Orgue; Transcontinental Music Corporation, 1955, 40 pages.

The preface states that Algazi was "a graduate of France’s Rabbinical Seminary ... studied musical composition in Vienna ... from early youth he wrote music– melodies, choral settings, violin, piano ... primarily to the preservation and development of the Jewish musical tradition ... in 1929 he created at the French Radio ... La Voix d’Israel ... director of the choirs of the Temple de la rue de la Victoire ... has schooled numerous cantors ... founded Salabert’s department of Jewish Music ... promoted Jewish music in concerts." Then follow a listing of some compositions for orchestra, orchestra and chorus, theatre music and others, some published by Salabert.

Comments:
Pentatonic motives, the parallel progressions of major and minor triads, altered seventh and ninth chords lend aspects of French Impressionism to this work. The voice parts are linear, the cantorial part has some melissmas. In Veohavto the cantillation based cantor’s part is interestingly harmonized. The cadences are modal.

Contents:
Ma Tovu, Borekhu, Shema, Veohavto, Mi Khomokho, Tsur Yisroel, Kedusha, Yihiu Lerotson, Seu Sheorim, Toro Tsivo Lonu, Shema, Lekho Adonoy, Hodo Al Erets, Ets Hayim Hi, Silent Devotion, May The Words, Vaanakhnu, Yevorekhekho; Friday Evening: Ma Tovu, Borekhu, Shema, Veohavto, Mi Khamokho, Veshomeru, Kaddish, Yihiu Lerotson, Silent Devotion, May The Words, Va-Anakhnu, Yevorekhekho.

Benedict, David: Shofar Service; New Horizon Music Publications, 1976, 14 pages.

Comments:
Vocal parts are linear and high. Accompaniment is simple and harmonically supports the voices; one might have expected more considering the composer was a proficient pianist.

Contents:
Happy Is the People, The Lord Reigneth, For the Mountains Shall Depart, All Ye Dwellers on Earth.

Benedict, David: Dance Service for Friday Eve; New Horizon Publications, n.d., 40 pages.

In the introduction the publisher revisits the places “dance has occupied” in Jewish history: Miriam’s dance at the Red Sea; the leaping and dancing before the Golden Calf; King David dancing before the Ark; dancing with the scrolls on Simchat Torah. It continues that the “work derives its Jewish feeling from oriental idioms, occasional hints at (sic) ancient cantillation and the use of harmonic modes associated with Jewish music.” The last page contains biographic information about the composer: Piano major at Juilliard ... oratorio, opera and concert appearances as tenor soloist.

Comments:
Rhythmic accompaniments, percussion instruments, chorus in blocks and not linear.

Contents:
Prelude, Bar’chu, Sh’ma YHisrael, Mi Chamocha, V’‘sham’ru, May The Words, Kiddush (high) (low), Va-anachnu, On That Day.

Benedict, David: Kavod Leshabbat, To the Glory of Sabbath, Service for Friday Evening, New Horizon Music Publications, 1976, 51 pages.

Comments:
The choral parts are instrumental-like rather than vocal.

Contents:
Adonai Malach, Bar’chu, Sh’ma,MiChamocha,V’shamru, May the Words (For high voice), May the Words (For medium voice), Kiddush, Va’anachnu. The Mountains Shall Depart, All Ye Dwellers on Earth.

**Berlinski, Herman: Avodat Shabbat, For Cantor, Choir (SATB) and Organ, unpub., 1958, 99 pages.

View Work Page »

Comments:
Berlinski’s journey from Leipzig to America is an epic in itself. A major composer who quantified that anything he wrote came from his Jewish soul, his catalogue included vocal, instrumental and orchestral music. Many of his works included the organ, an instrument he mastered in America. Philosophical and articulate, he was preoccupied with the Holocaust and the perilous condition of Jews in Europe. To support himself as an émigré in Paris he played piano in the Yiddish theater. He related that his studies with Boulanger were not fruitful, unlike his sessions with Messiaen. The recording of this service by the Milken Archive in Germany was a stellar event in the world of Jewish liturgical music. The music deserves careful analyses.

Contents:
Prelude, Ma Tovu, L’cho Dodi, Tov L’hodos, Bor’chu, Epilogue (Uma’avir Yom), Ahavas Olam, Sh’ma, V’ohavto, Interlude (Adonoi Eloheichem emes), Mi Chomocho, V’shom’ru, Kaddish, Interlude, Yih’yu L’rotzon, Kiddush, Adoration, Vaanachnu,, Adon Olom, Benediction-Amen, Postlude.

Biddelman, Mark: Shiru Ladonai Shir Chadash, A Folk-Rock Service for the Sabbath for Cantor, Choir and Guitar; Tara Publishing Co., 1971, 47 pages.

Notes on the Composer and the Service:
“Mark Biddelman is a graduate of the Hebrew Union College ... He has written this Folk-Rock service with the intention of reaching not only the young but all Jews in his community who are having difficulty in relating to the traditional Friday Evening Service and Jewish services in general. This service was first performed on May 21, 1971 in Westwood, New Jersey using two guitars, drums and flute played by teenage members of the congregation.”

Comments:
Simple melodies.The service has a notated guitar tablature, a tuneful Kaddish melody which enjoyed some popularity and, of interest, the inclusion of a widely popular melody for V’shamru that has been attributed to a different composer.

Contents:
Candle Blessing, Ma Tovu, L’cha Dodi, Prelude to Mourner’s Kaddish and Mourner’s Kaddish, Barchu, Ahavat Olam, Sh’ma, V’ahavta, Mi Chamocha, V’neemar, V’shamru, Hatzi Kaddish, Silent Devotion, May the Words, Kiddush, Aleynu, Bayom Hahu, Adon Olam.

*Binder, Abraham Wolf: Chibat Shabbat (Love of the Sabbath), Service for Sabbath Evening, According to the Union Prayer Book; Bloch Publishing Co., 1928, 30 pages.

In the preface Binder writes: “I have always felt regretful of the fact that so little is heard in this country of the great works of the classic masters of Synagogue music; such as Sulzer, Lewandowski, Naumbourg, Nowakowsky and others. Why? Because these men realized how important it was for the Synagogue to retain its traditional melodies, for in these melodies one could feel the spirit and soul of the traditional Synagogue. These men not only knew the traditional prayer motives and tunes, but also had the advantage of a thorough musical knowledge. Combining these two qualities, they gave us many valuable volumes of synagogue music of which we, in this country, knew so very little. But the Reform Synagogue was faced with a new problem. With many prayers curtailed, many cut out altogether, and many new ones added, the cantors, even if they wanted to use the works of the masters, found these works unsuitable—for these masters had composed their synagogue compositions according to the orthodox prayer book. The cantor or choirmaster who possessed sufficient majority were faced with a tremendous problem. They had no music!

... Joseph Stark’s works are the exceptions. In this volume of Sabbath music I have made an humble effort to do what I feel has so far been neglected. The Synagogue has always played an important part in Jewish life and its music has always been an integral part of it. Most of the compositions in this volume have been in the repertoire of the Free Synagogue choir for a number of years. It was the sympathy and understanding of my dear friend, Dr. Stephen S. Wise, for the beauties of traditional synagogue music, which enabled me to bring into our service the works of the great masters and many things which I wrote expressly for our service.
Let us return to these beautiful tunes and zealously guard that which our ancestors deemed sacred.”

Comments:
Binder was an important musical figure in the world of American Jewish music and an early collector of the music of the ḥalutzim as well as Yemenite and Arabic music. He was actively involved in the formation of Jewish musical groups and held influential positions at the 92nd Street Y, the Free Synagogue and Jewish Institute of Religion (later HUC-JIR). One can be assured that his remarks in the preface were widely heard and, given the early date of this service, one can assume that Binder had a strong influence on the course of American service-oriented music. The music is tuneful and conventionally harmonized. The three versions of several prayers follows the Union Prayerbook’s three sets of texts for Friday Evening Services. The Sh’ma II is a dramatic setting. Binder acts the synagogue-historian-composer in writing a Hanukkah version of Mi Chomocho, using a Sephardi melody (Spanish- Portuguese Hashkivenu) for “May the Words” and the cantor’s-son-composer in “V’shomru” by modulating to the fourth step (traditional nusaḥ hat'fillah [prayer service practice]) at “Beni uvein b’nei Yisroel. Deserves analysis.

Contents:
Tov L’hodos, Borchu I, Sh’ma Yisroel I, Borchu II, Sh’ma Yisroel II, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel III, Mi Chomocho, Mi Chomocho (For Chanukkah), V’shomru I, V’shomru II, May Three Amens.

Binder, Abraham Wolf : Kabbalath Shabbat, Welcoming the Sabbath, A Collection of Psalms, Responses and Ceremonials for the Eve of the Sabbath, According to the Newly Revised Union Prayer Book, For Cantor, Mixed Chorus and Organ Accompaniment, by A.W. Binder, Professor of Liturgical Music, Jewish Institute of Religion; Bloch Publishing Co., 1940, 67 pages.

In the foreword Binder states:
“This work comes to the Reform Synagogue of America as a result of the revised version of the Union Prayer Book for the Sabbath and Three Festivals. It is the first of its kind. In the Sabbath Eve section, many prayers and ceremonials in the traditional observance of the Sabbath Eve have been restored, giving the Jewish composer an opportunity to bring back some of the beautiful modes and melodies traditionally associated with the service of welcoming the Sabbath. These modes and melodies have always contributed greatly towards the joy of the Sabbath, as well as to the Jew’s love of the Sabbath. As in my earlier Sabbath services ... I utilized to a great extent this rich musical heritage. I took the liberty of introducing in the newly created Torah Service for Friday evening, the Biblical cantillation mode of the Sabbath, Zemiroth melody and Palestinian song. Let us root out of the Synagogue the operatic and banal music which has become so widespread in our day and bring back the music of the Synagogue into the Synagogue thereby helping our people to experience once more some of the joys which our ancestors felt on this day of rest.”

Comments:
The lighting of Sabbath candles melody and concurrent spoken English texts became standard fare in Reform congregations where the actual lighting of candles took place as opposed to most Conservative and all Orthodox practice. Kiddush II is set to biblical cantillation motives. This is an impressive work and deserves analysis.

Contents:
Kindling of Sabbath Lights, L’cho Dodi, Yismechu, Adonoiu Moloch Togel Ho-oretz (Ps. 97), Mizmor; Shiru Ladonoy (Ps. 98), Hashkivenu, L’cho N’ranenu (Ps. 95), Kiddush I (After Lewandowski), Kiddush II (Pentateuch Cantillation Mode); Torah Service: Lo Yoreu (Haftarah Cantillation), Shma Yisrel, Emes, Elohay Olom (Zemiroth melody), Hineh Mah Tov (palestinian Song), Or Zarua, Yimloch; Chanukkah Service: Mizmor Shir Chanukka Habayis, Response - The Lord is My Light, Brochos Shel Chanukkah, Shehecheyonu I, Shehecheyonu II, Rock of Ages (Chanukkah Hymn).

*Binder, A.W.: Afternoon Service for The Day of Atonement for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1956, 39 pages.

Comments:
With this service Binder brings traditional nusaḥ hat'fillah into the Reform Movement’s Yom Kippur service: K’vakoras is in the Ahavah Rabba mode, (phrygian with a raised 3rd scale step), well-known motives for Ochiloh lo-el, the age-old Oleynu melody, the ascending triplets of the High Holiday Kedushah here transferred to Avodah.

Hayom t’amtzenu is structured in a manner that makes the congregational responses artful. In an interesting turn-around the cantor responds to the choir rather than the reverse (Va’anachnu kor’im umishtachavim umodim).

Contents:
A Servant Unto Thee, Work In My Behalf, Un’saneh Tokef, Ochiloh Lo-El, Oleynu, They Shall Not Hurt, Avodah, a) and b) Ono Adonoy c) Boruch Shem d) Yimloch Adonoy, My Soul Is Athirst For God (Solo), All The World (Hymn), The Sacrifices of God, Dark’cho Eloheynu (Solo), V’atem Had’vekim, Hayom T’amtzenu, Eyn Komocho, For He Satisfieth The Longing Heart (Solo).

Binder, Abraham Wolf : Three Festival Music Liturgy for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ, Transcontinental Music Publications, 1962, 71 pages.

Contents:
Choral Prelude, Festival Anthem (Ps. 135), Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho (Passover-Shavuot-Sukkot), Vay’daber Moshe, Atoh V’chartonu, Adoration, Three Festival Kiddush, Amens for Benediction. Morning Service: Horiu Ladonoi (Ps. 100), Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, K’dushah. Three-fold Benediction, May The Words (Solo), Hallel a) Hodu Ladonoy b) Ono Adonoy, Eyn Komocho, Adony, Adonoy, Praised Be He, Sh’ma Yisroel and L’cho Adonoyh, Y’hal’lu, Gad’lu and Hodo Al Eretz, Prayer for Dew and Rain a) Let the Rain b) For the Blessing. Service for Simchath Torah: Atoh Horeso, Ono Adonoy, Bneediction for Consecrants, Sisu V’simchu. Memorial Service: Shivisi Adonoy (Psalm 16: 8-11).

Binhak, Carl: Sabbath Evening Service, Bloch Publishing Company, 1933.

In the foreword Cantor Nathan G. Meltzoff writes that the Carl Binhak was born in Bohemia in 1873. After studies at the Conservatory of Music in Prague, [he] emigrated to America in 1891. A violinist, accompanist and organist he was a long time director of music of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of New York and became organist of the “Emanu-El Brotherhood of New York [where] he planned musical settings of many of the beautiful Hebrew prayers, but death came too soon and he was denied the time to finish a complete service. It was upon the request of his numerous friends that I [Meltzoff] have undertaken the duty of publishing his compositions ... I have selected from other sources a few numbers which were needed for the Friday Evening Service.”

Comments:
Much chromatic writing, interesting that the cantor’s part has measures of traditional coloratura.

Contents:
Tov L’hodos (P. Sommer), Borchu (G. Froelich), Eternal Truth, Mi Chomocho I-II, V’Schomru, Let the Words I-II (N.G. Meltzoff), Elohenu, Vaanachnu, On That Day (H. Goldstein), Adon Olom.

Braslavsky, Solomon: Shirei Shlomo III - The High Holy Days, Collected Works, For Cantor, Choir (S.A.T.B.) and Organ; Mills Music, 1963, 109 pages.

Comments:
A well-grounded, workman-like collection. Braslavsky ornaments traditional tunes with choir and organ. Harmonic language and style are predictable. Leonard Bernstein grew up in Temple Mishkan Tefilla in Boston and heard and admired Braslavsky.

Contents:
Organ Prelude, (For Selichot Service), Chatzi Kaddish (For High Holy Day Services), L’chu N’ranenoh (For Selichot Services Only), Hashkivenu (For the High Holy Days Only), Yigdal (Traditional for High Holy Days), Un’saneh Tokef, Emes, Kodosh Ato, Or Zarua (Old Traditional Chant Preceding Kol Nidre Services), Kol Nidre (G Minor) (Cantor and Organ), Kol Nidre (A Minor) (Cantor, Choir and Organ), Yaaleh, Shema Koleinu, V’al Kulom.

*Braun, Yehezkiel: Arvit L’Shabbat, for Cantor, Mixed Choir and Organ; Cleveland Friends of the Cantors Assembly, 1971, 86 pages. Reprinted 1989; Israel Music Institute, 92 pages.

In the preface Samuel Rosenbaum accords kudos to the composer and the commissioning cantor and congregation (Saul Meisels, the Temple-on-the-Heights, Cleveland, Ohio and the Cleveland Friends of the Cantors Assembly) for creating “a folk masterpiece, beautiful and appealing, authentic and lasting.”

A brief biography of Braun is offered. Born in 1922, he fought in WW II with the Jewish Brigade of the British Army. A graduate of the Israeli Academy of Music where his teacher was A.V. Boscovitz, he (now) teaches Music Theory and Composition there. Braun remarks “I was consciously aiming at a general tone of subdued emotions, of a somber yet warm, intimate and inward-looking nature. I am far from claiming this to be the ‘right’ way of composing a service, but this was my immediate reaction to the wonderful words of worship which I know from childhood.”

Comments:
Simply constructed vocal lines and accompaniments, some canonic and imitation writing. One assumes that, as a non-orthodox Israeli, Braun did not have first hand knowledge of any synagogal musical traditions but one might have expected that he had some cantorial or other guidance in writing a commissioned work: assignment of Ahavah Rabba to the Friday Evening Hatzi Kaddish is jarring as is a major tonality to Hashkivenu.

Contents:
Ma Tovu, L’chu N’ran’na, L’cha Dodi, Mizmor Shir, Bar’chu, Ahavat Olam, Sh’ma Yisrael, V’ahavta, Mi Chamocha, Hashkivenu I, Hashkivenu II, V’sham’ru, Chatsi Kaddish, Amida - Organ, Yiyu L;ratson, May The Words, Magen Avot, Kiddush, Alenu, Adon Olam.

Bugatch, Samuel: Shirei Shabbat Kodesh, Sabbath Eve Service for Cantor (Tenor or Baritone) and Mixed Voices (SATB) with Organ Accompaniment; Bloch Publishing Company, 1963, 91 pages.

In the preface Bugatch presents qualities he deems necessary in order to compose for the synagogue:
“Hundreds of years of musical effort on the part of cantors and composers have helped to create a music which can be called ‘typically Jewish.’... The composer ... [must have] a deeprooted love for and a complete knowledge of the Jewish traditional chants. Nusaḥ hat'fillah is ... the most important ingredient in the music of the Synagogue. A word must be said about the harmonization. There is a constant and continuous search for new harmonies among the serious Jewish composers. Some feel that the Western harmonization of the Eastern chants creates an unsatisfactory musical creation. Unresolved dissonances, chords based on fourths, and sometimes a complete disregard of accepted musical rules very often adorn the music of many gifted composers. I follow no particular school or method of harmonization. I have sought instead to follow instinct and taste. In places where, in my opinion the old melody require the so-called “modernistic” harmony, I have unhesitatingly used it. On the other hand, I also did not hesitate to use the so-called “accepted” chords where I felt that the mood required it.

Comments:
Writing in the old style, the composer indeed follows the nusah hatefillah and the cantor-choir patterns of a traditional synagogue service.

Contents:
Preface, Ma Tovu, L’cho Dodi, No. 1, Likras Shabos, No. 2, Mikdash Melech, No. 3, Hisor’ri, No. 4. Bo-i V’sholom, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, V’ohav’to, Mi Chomocho, Hashkiveinu, V’shomru, May the Words (Yih’yu L’rotzon), Vay’chulu, Kiddush, Oleinu (Adoration), On That Day (Bayom Hahu), Adon Olom, Amens For Benediction, Shabat Shalom.

*Chajes, Julius: Shabbat Shalom, Sabbath Eve Service for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music Corporation, 1952, 28 pages.

Comments:
A child prodigy in piano, Chajes began composing at the age of nine. He lived for a short while in Palestine and there came under the influence of the so-called Mediterranean style (see Neil W. Levin, biographical sketch of Julius Chajes). Composed three operas and orchestral works but is known mostly for his vocal and piano pieces. In the Prelude are Chajes’ trade marked consecutive fifths and fourths. All of the settings are fugal in form.

Contents:
Organ Prelude, Adonoy Moloch, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, V’shomru, Silent Devotion, May the Words, Harken To My Pray’r, Let Us Adore, VaAnachnu, On That Day, Adon Olom.

***Cohon, Boruch: Avodas Simchoh; Publications for Judaism, 1961, 90 pages.
Cohon indicates the service is in honor of his father, Prof. Samuel S. Cohon (musicologist, contributor to the Jewish Encyclopedia and whose wife A. Irma Cohon was secretary to Abraham Idelsohn).
Comments: In three parts, Sabbath Eve, Festivals, High Holidays.

An organ prelude is based on themes for the Holidays.

Coopersmith, Harry: Friday Eve Service for Two Part Choir; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1958, 51 pages.

In the preface Coopersmith shares his concern that composers “have as yet  (not) become aware of the special needs of amateur groups.”

Comments:
This service is a collection of 48 tunes of the Friday Evening liturgy, 2-3 or 4 settings of each prayer by diverse composers: Lewandowski, Ephros, Sulzer Freed, Fromm, Helfman, etc. with parts reduced to two and no accompaniments provided.

*Davidson, Charles: Chassidic Sabbath for Cantor, Mixed Voices (SATB) and Organ, Mills Music Inc., 1961 (Reassigned 1972, Ashbourne Music Publications, Inc.), 12 octavos.

Comments:
An early work . The Adon Olam and V’sham’ru became popular.

Contents:
Sholom Aleychem, L’cho Dodi, Bor’chu and Sh’ma (Tenor), Bor’chu and Sh’ma (Baritone), Mi Chomocho, V’shom’ru, Yism’chu, Chatsi-Kaddish, Vay’chulu, Mogeyn Ovos, R’tzey, Adon Olom, Yom Zeh M’chubod.

*Davidson, Charles: Modern Torah Service for Sabbath Morning, For Cantor, Choir and Congregation with Organ; Mills Music, 1966, 20 pages.

Comments:
Multi-rhythmic with meter changes following the accents of the text, key changes add to the interest, blues and jazz harmonies. 

Contents:
S’u Sh’arim, Havu Godel, Bet Yaakov, Sh’ma Yisrael, Anthem.

**Davidson, Charles: And David Danced Before The Lord, A Sabbath Service for Cantor, Mixed Chorus and Orchestra (Piano or Organ Version), Mills Music, Inc., 1966, 66 pages.

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Comments:
Shir Hashirim cantillation, free and improvisatory style for the xylophone throughout; L’cha Dodi a typical jazz piece; blues and jazz harmonies throughout; scat-style Bar’chu; river-blues Ahavat Olam; in the Sh’ma some spoken text; rhythmically driven Mi Chamocha; sustained ostinato in the bluesy V’sham’ru; Kaddush includes familiar tune; Grant Us Peace is free-composed; Anim Zemirot is based on a traditional melody; in the Kiddush a traditional cantorial line is imposed on a constantly moving, accented accompaniment in 5/4, choir in sixths imitates the famous Lewandowski tune; In Aleinu sax and keyboard set up a riff against the vocal line; Adon Olam is groovy with a bass ostinato, a steady beat against choir and solo.

Contents:
Shir Hashirim, L’cha Dodi, Bar’chu, Ahavat Olam, Sh;ma Yisrael, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Half-Kaddish, Grant Us Peace, Yiyu L’ratzon, Anim Zemirot, Kiddush, Alenu, Adon Olam.

*Davidson, Charles: Sephardic Service for the Sabbath (Libi B’mizrach), for Cantor, Congregation, Unison or Part Choir, Optional Organ, Flute, Israeli Drum; Ashbourne Music Publications, Inc., 1972, 14 octavos.

Comments:
Simple melodies, two adaptations of Spanish-Portuguese tunes.

Contents:
L’chu N’ran’nah, L’cha Dodi, Mizmor Shir, Adonai Malach, Bar’chu, Ahavat Olam, Sh’ma, Mi Chamocha, Hashkivenu, V’sham’ru, Kaddish, Yiyu L’ratzon, Shalom Alechem, Yigdal.

*Davidson, Charles: L’David Mizmor, Eleven Octavos From The Service for Sabbath Eve, Ashbourne Music Publications, Inc., 1973, 11 octavos.

Comments:
Rewrite of a Park Avenue Synagogue commission. The sung prelude is based on Israeli tune for Yedid Nefesh; Psalm 92 is a cantorial call and a congregational response to a composed Sephardi-sounding tune; L’cha Dodi is through-composed; printed cantillation signs in the V’ahavta;  Mi Chamocha is deftly syncopated with the lowered seventh of the Adonai Malach mode; V’sham’ru is based on an hassidic tune for Passover; Half Kaddish incorporates a Sabbath table song; Oseh Shalom is a canon; Vay’chulu is in the Adonai Malach mode; Adon Olam uses variations in the accompaniments

Contents:
Prelude and Sabbath Melody, Psalm 92, L’cha Dodi, Bar’chu, Sh’ma, V’ahavta and L’maan Tizk’ru, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Half Kaddish, Oseh Shalom, Vay’chulu, Adon Olam.

*Davidson, Charles: Kol Yaakov, A Sabbath Evening Service for Three-Part Congregational Choir, S.A.B (Optional Tenor and Accomp.); Ashbourne Music Publishing, 1978, 31 pages.

In the preface the composer addresses “the gradual disappearance of the professional choir in many Conservative and some Reform congregations.” He continues that the higher the key the less likely it will be that congregants will sing and hopes that this “is a service which hopes to involve both singers and congregants in prayer music which (is) in proper nusach ... and that the set pieces will fit into the fabric of prayer.”

Comments:
Dedicated to Rabbi Yaakov G. Rosenberg. Low key choices (E minor, D minor, D major, C minor), limited melodic range, tuneful settings comply with the guide lines set forth in the preface. Eclectic choices i.e. Western European hatimot, hassidic tune for L’cha Dodi, Shirah cantillations for Mi Chamocha, Spanish- Portuguese melody for Hashkivenu, constructions in the nusah hatefillah for V’sham’ru (opening interval of a fifth, Adonai Malach extension, subtonic cadence, 4-1 concluding cadence) the Rabbi of Kotsk niggun for Oseh Shalom, notated Shir Hashirim cantillations in Kiddush. Mostly three-part (S.A.B.) arrangements.

Contents:
Prelude and Sabbath Melody, Psalm 92, L’cha Dodi, Bar’chu, Sh’ma, V’ahavta and  L’maan Tizk’ru, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Half Kaddish, Oseh Shalom, Vay’chulu, Adon Olam. L’cha Dodi, Ahavat Olam, Mi Chamocha, Hashkivenu, V’sham’ru, Chatzi Kaddish, Oseh Shalom, Vay’chulu, Kiddush, Yigdal.

Einstein, Arthur: Tefillot Emanuel (Liturgical Music of Arthur Einstein), Templeton Publishing Co., 1962, 47 pages.

A short biography " ... of Arthur Einstein, Musical Director and Choir Master of Temple Emanu-El, Providence, RI from the day of its dedication in 1927 to the day of his passing, in 1960. He was born in Odessa, the city ... of modern Synagogue music ... sang in the Broider Shul where Minkovsky was the Hazzan and Novokovsky was Music Director. Einstein’s father was Chazzan (sic) Sheni in the Synagogue until he left for the United States. (His music’s publication) was made possible by the Einstein’s wife, Essie, who was devoted not only to him but to his music as Emanu-El for more than a quarter of a century, until his untimely passing in 1964."

Contents:
And The Heavens Were Created, L’cho Dodi, Hashkiveinu, V’shomru, May The Words I, May The Words II, The Lord Reigneth, Heyei Im Pifiyos.

Freed, Isadore: Sabbath Morning Service for Two Part Choir, According to the Union Prayer Book; Transcontinental Music Corporation, 1950, 24 pages.

Comments:
One of the handful of Jewish composers who were able to influence the course of Reform Jewish music in America (see Neil W. Levin, biographical sketch of Isadore Freed), an early meeting with Bloch moved Freed to turn to composition; as well, he was an accomplished pianist and organist. His first works were composed in Philadelphia and his last in Lawrence, Long Island, New York. His interest in French modality may have been acquired while living in France and during his studies with Boulanger. The short, two-part settings in this slim book are well-written and lyrical. 

Contents:
Ma Tovu, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel I, Mi Chomocho, K’dusha, May the Words, S’u Sh’orim, Boruch Shenosan Toroh, Sh’ma Yisroel II, L’cho Adonoy, Gad’lu, Hodu Al Eretz, Etz Chayim, Va-anachnu, On That Day.

**Freed, Isadore: Sacred Service for Sabbath Eve, for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ, Transcontinental Music Publishing, 1953, 70 pages.

A Park Avenue Synagogue Commission. In the preface the composer and publisher explain that “many parts of this service are based on biblical cantillation or traditional prayer modes but the musical settings of the psalms, prayers and responses by no means constitute new arrangements of old melodies. Rather, these motifs are treated as cells or nuclei from which the organic whole of the musical composition has been developed. Thus, from traditional roots a work has grown that is contemporary in spirit and structure ... acknowledgement is made to Cantor Putterman for transmitting to the composer some traditional chants which were utilized for the cantorial portions connecting various prayers.”

Comments:
An excellent composition with colorful chord changes modulations and modal cadences throughout. Veshomru modulates to the fourth as is traditional; the “Readers” Kaddish incorporates the familiar tune for the Hatzi Kaddish of Friday evening; Yigdal begins with a motive from a Yemenite melody for that text.

Contents:
L’chu N’ran’noh (Psalm 93), Adonoy Moloch (Psalm 97), Shiru Ladonoy (Psalm 98), L’cho Dodi,Tov L’hodos (Psalm 92), Bor’chu I, Bor’chu II, El Chai V’kayom, V’ahavos’cho, Sh’ma Yisrael, V’ohavato, Silent Prayer (Organ Solo), Mi Chamocho, Yism’chu, Hashkivenu, V’shomru, Reader’s Kaddish, M’chalkel Chayim, Silent Devotion (Organ Solo), Yih-yu L’rotzon (May The Words I), May The Words II, Kiddush, Vaanachnu, On That Day (V’hoyo Adonoy, Mourner’s Kaddish (Organ Meditation), Yigdal, Benediction.

***Freed, Isadore: High Holiday Music for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ, Transcontinental Music, 1956, 28 pages.

Comments:
The texts are in English. Happy Is The People is a short antiphon; Or Zarua does not make use of traditional examples but is a brassy exclamation. Binder, for example, would surely have used traditional sources for this particular prayer in its exposed position at the Kol Nidrei service. Harmonically staid.

Contents:
Happy Is The People, Or Zorua, Ki Vayom Ha-Zeh, Prepare To Meet Thy God, Like As A Father (Solo), Shachar Avakeshcho, T’hilas Adonoy, Work In My Behalf (Duet), They Shall Not Hurt, Yimloch Adonoy, My Soul Thirsteth For God (Solo), The Sacrifices of God, Ye Who Cleave Unto The Lord, For He Satisfieth The Longing Heart, Why Art Thou Cast Down, My Soul? The Sun Goes Down I (Anthem), The Sun Goes Down II (Anthem), Bless The Lord

Freed, Isadore: Sacred Service, Transcribed for the American Synagogue; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1961, 48 pages.

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All music by Salamone Rossi as arranged by Freed for a Friday Evening Service. The informative historical notes by Freed are worth including here. "Salomone Rossi (1564–70?), court musician to the Dukes of Mantua (Guglielmo, Vincenzo I and Ferdinando) from 1587-1628 as composer, singer and violinist. (During that time Rossi wrote) thirteen large works Madrigals, Canzonets, Sinfonia and Sonatas. Collaborated with Monteverdi in music dramas Madalenna and L’Idropica. Sister, Madame Europa, appeared in many Monteverdi operas. His style inclined to the homophonic reform which took place about 1600 in Florence. The ... contrapuntal devices then practiced, gradually gave way to a simpler vocal style with harmonic accompaniment. Rossi made an important contribution to the development of musical form ... earliest example of the four movement type of Sonata (pub. 1613) later perfected by Vitali and Corelli. His Sonata a Tre ... was one of the earliest Trio Sonatas written, perhaps even the first. Rossi also devoted himself to the synagogue ... the first musically well-educated figure to do so. ... it is remarkable that in the bigoted atmosphere of the sixteenth century, a composer who always signed himself Salomone Rossi Ebreo could have risen to his important place ... wrote a collection of thirty-three religious songs to Hebrew liturgical texts ... 1622 under the title of Ha-Shirim Asher Lishlomo, the earliest known published volume of harmonized Jewish music. The style is ... Italian Renaissance: but here and there a minor cadence intrudes which distinguishes his sacred music from that of his Christian contemporaries.” (See also, notes to the Milken Archive recording of excerpts of this service, included in Volume 4.)

In the introduction, Freed also discusses the problems of adapting new texts to Rossi’s music; for example, the problem of reducing an eight part double chorus ... to a four-part chorus was resolved by giving one chorus to the Cantor and the organ and keeping the other chorus intact.”

Contents:
A Psalm of David (Organ Prelude), Tov L’hodos (Psalm 92), L’cho Dodi, a) Hisorari b) Boi V’sholom, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, Yism’chu, V’shomru, Hashkivenu, May The Words, Va-anachnu, On That Day, Adon Olom.

Freed, Isadore: Hassidic Service for Sabbath for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1959, 26 pages.

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Comments:
In the introduction Rabbi Judah Cahn explains that "most of the traditional melodies of this Service are recorded in the Zalmanoff and Idelsohn Anthologies of Hassidic music." The intended "hassidic" element here is use of the minor scale, raised third and minor second (the Ahavah Rabba prayer mode). The augmented interval is common in Yiddish folk tunes. Freed is more successful in the rhythmic refrains than in the cantorial solo recitativo sections in simulating the "hassidic" flavor.

Contents:
L’cho Dodi, a) Likras Shabos b) Hisorari c) Boi V’sholom, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, V’Shomru, Yism’chu, May The Words I, May the Words II, Va’Anachnu, On That Day.

Fromm, Herbert: Adath Israel, Friday Eve Service for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ, According to the Newly Revised Union Prayer Book; Transcontinental Music Corporation, 1943, 59 pages.

In the preface the composer states: “The plight of the Jewish people in our time presents a strong challenge to the contemporary Jewish composer. This service has been conceived as a musical entity. Certain germ motives are designed to give unity to material. The keys are in definite relationship to each other and related parts of the prayer-book find a related expression in music. In the composition of some of the psalms been transformed into a structure of higher organization that leads the motif through several tonalities. Traditional modes have been widely employed with the exception of the Ahavo Rabbo mode, for this mode invariably translates the universal language of our psalms and prayers into the more intimate terms of personal expression. The responses are kept short and have the intended effect of responses without unduly interrupting the spoken parts of the liturgy.”

Comments:
Fromm’s cogent remarks are meaningful and will help in analyzing the work. He explains why he does not use the Ahavah Rabba mode here, never-the-less, our comment is that this mode, traditionally, is not often found in the Friday Evening Service. The “Grant Us Peace” was widely used as a separate anthem.

Contents:
Organ Prelude, L’cḥo Dodi, Adonaoy Moloch (Ps. 97), Shiru Ladonoy (Ps. 98), L’.chu N’ran’noh (Ps. 95, 1-7), Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomochoh, V’shom’ru, Yism’chu, Grant Us Peace, May the Words I, May the Words II, Kiddush, Toroh Service, Let Us Adore, Vaanachnu, Adon Olom, Adon Olom (Congregational Version), Benediction (Y’vorech’cho).

Fromm, Herbert: Atonement Music For Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ, According to the Newly Revised Union Prayer Book; Transcontinental Music Corporation, 1948, 67 pages.

Comments:
Masterful settings by a master craftsman. Ostensibly written for Reform congregations, the work has its feet set firmly in the Ashkenazi liturgical tradition. The melodies for Or Zarua, Kol Nidre, Bor’chu,V’al Kulam are traditional, the refrain in Yaaleh is inventive, Ochilah Lo-El quotes the traditional version, Ono Adonoi incorporates the ascending triplets of the Yom Kippur Kedushah, Pesach Lonu Shaar is in the traditional pattern for the Ne’ilah Service (closing of the Yom Kipper liturgy). Contrapuntal writing throughout; solid construction. 

Contents:
Or Zarua Latsadik, Kol Nidre, Vayomer Adonoy, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, V’al Kulom, Yaaleh, Prepare To Meet Thy God, Like As A Father, Ki Onu Amecho, Responses for Atonement Morning, Turn Us Again To Thee, I, The Lord, Search The Heart, A Servant Unto Thee, Kamoh Yaavrun, Ochiloh Lo-El, Ono Adonoy, Hayom T’amtsenu, The Sun Goes Down, P’sach Lonu Shaar, Concluding Responses: a) Va-anachnu, b) Sh’ma Yisroel, c) Boruch Shem, d) Adonoy Hu Ho-Elohim.

Fromm, Herbert: Chemdat Yamim, (The Day of Delight), Sabbath Morning Service for Cantor Choir, Solo Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1964, 66 pages.

Contents:
Organ Prelude, Psalm V, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel I, V’ohavto, Mi Chomochoh, Tsur Yisroel, K’dushah, Silent Devotion, Yihyuh L’rotson, S’u Sh’orim, Sh’ma Yisrtoel II, L’cho Adonoy, Gadlu and Hodo Al Erets, Toras Adonoy, Ets Chayim, Oleynu, Va-anachnu, Yigdal.

***Fromm, Herbert: Five Opening Anthems for the Synagogue, for Cantor, Choir and Organ, Transcontinental Music Publications, 1971, 39 pages.

Contents:
Mah Tovu, Psalm 122, Psalm 5, Psalm 36, L’cha Dodi. 

Fromm, Herbert: Ma-ariv, Evening Devotion, Three Prayers and Hymn for Baritone, Reader, Mixed Choir and Orchestra, Transcontinental Music Publications, 1976,. 32 pages.

Contents:
A twenty-two minute orchestral work based on several prayers from Ma’ariv L’shabbat with singers and spoken text. The English translations "have been adapted for the Reader by the composer."

Comments:
Fromm the poet is embraced by Fromm the composer; his felicitous translations are an added bonus to this tightly constructed work. 

Contents:
Prayer I: Baritone Solo, Choir, Accompaniment (Bar’chu ... Hama’ariv aravim.); Prayer II: Baritone Solo, Accompaniment (My God, keep my tongue from evil ... O Lord, my rock and my Redeemer.); Prayer III: Baritone Solo, Choir, Accompaniment (Baruch atah Adonai ... bichvodo. Amen.); IV. Hymn, Baritone Solo, Choir, Accompaniment (Adon olam ... v’lo ira.)

Gideon, Miriam: Shirat Miriam L’Shabbat, Cantor, Mixed Chorus, Organ; English Text by Albert Weisser C.F. Peters, 1978, 64 pages.

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Contents:
Prelude, Ma TovuL’chu N’rannah, L’cha Dodi, Adonai Malach, Bar’chu, Sh’ma, Silent Prayer, Mi Chamochah, Hashkivenu, Silent Prayer, Yih’yu, Vay’chulu, Kiddush, Vaanachnu, Mourners’ Kaddish, Shalom Aleichem.

Gideon, Miriam: Sacred Service for Soloists, Choir, Flute, Oboe, Trumpet, Bassoon, Viola, Cello, Organ, Transcontinental Music Publications (Union of American Hebrew Congregations) 1984, 38 pages.

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An introduction by Barbara Peterson describes Gideon as “one of the pioneers among women composers in America.” She was born in Greely, Colorado on October 23, 1906. In the early 30’s she was a pupil of Lazare Saminsky and later studied with Roger Sessions. She was the second woman composer elected to the membership in the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters.

Contents:
Prelude, Mah Tovu, Bar’chu, Sh’ma, V”ahavta, Mi Chamocha, Tsur Yisrael, Avot, K’dusha, Yihyu L’ratso, The Sun and Moon (Anthem: Text, Yehuda Halevi), Aleinu, Music After Kaddish, Amen.

Goldstein, David: Friday Night Service; New Horizon Music Publications, 1973, 32 pages.

Contents:
Prelude, Candle Blessing, L’cha Dodi, L’chu N’ran’na, Bar’chu, Sh’ma Yisrael, Mi Adon Olam, Benediction.

Gottlieb, Jack, Love Songs for the Sabbath, (Shirei Ahavah L’Shabat), A Service with Poetry and Dance celebrating the Holiness of Time; Theodore Presser Company, 1971, 11 octavos. 

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Comments:
Directions for performance indicate that rental materials are required: score, percussion part, reader’s part and congregational prayer booklets. Rhythmic, complex and inventive. Choir (congregation) davenen notated and placed amid set pieces. An important work. 

Contents:
Psalm 96, L’chah Dodi, Bar’chu, Bar’chu, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Hashkiveinu, Cantillation Chorale, Half Kaddish, Vay’chulu, Adon Olam. (In octaves, percussion line on each.)

Gottlieb, Jack: New Year’s Service for Young People, Two-Part Chorus and Piano or Organ; Theophilous Music, 1978, 64 pages.

Comments:
Gottlieb presents a module of five notes in the first piece and expands and varies it throughout. The variations are inventive and colorfully chromatic. English texts are by the composer. The poetic text additions address a young audience.

Contents:
New Year’s Greetings to God, Shehecheyanu, Bar’chu, Sh’ma Yisrael, Mi Chamocha A. (Rosh Hashana, Evening and Morning), B. Mi Chamocha (Yom Kippur Evening and Morning), C. Mi Chamocha (for General Use, Morning), Zochreinu, (Kedusha) A. Kadosh, Baruch Kavod, Yimloch Adonai, V’al Kulam, I Resolve (Rosh Hashana), The Book of Life, Hymn Of Forgiveness, (Yom Kippur), Silent Devotion, May The Words. (Torah Service) S’u Shearim, Sh’ma Yisrael, L’cha Adonai, Hodo Al Eretz, Eitz Chayim, Hashiveinu, Vaanachnu, Closing Hymn.

Helfman, Max: The Holy Sabbath (Shabbat Kodesh), Friday Evening Service for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1942, 55 pages.

In the preface Helfman writes that “we are living through something of a Renaissance in the field of Jewish liturgic music ... a long overdue reaction against the nondescript, characterless banalities that used to constitute by far the greater part of the musical portion of our sacred services in America.” After Helfman reviews the general lack of professional resources and insufficient rehearsal time to prepare complex and large scale works he concludes with advice to composers to keep practical considerations in mind when writing for the synagogue.

Comments:
Extremely lyrical and dramatic.

Contents:
Mah Tovu, L;‘cho Dodi, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, Hashkivenu, V’shom’ru, Kaddish, Silent Devotion, May the Words, Kiddush, Let Us Adore, Vaanachnu II, Uvayom Hahu, Adon Olam.

Helfman, Max: The Holy Ark, (Aron Ha-Kodesh), Torah Service for Sabbath and Festivals; Transcontinental Music Publications,1958, 39 pages.

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In the introduction Helfman comments that liturgic tradition and musical modes vary in importance and artistic value and form part of the “evolving music-language of the write for the living synagogue.” He writes about the difficulty of melding a musical and stylistic continuity and declares that he has primarily sought to capture the dramatic element “in this impressively pageant-like portion of our liturgy and its “inherent dramatic sweep and vitality.”

Contents:
Eyn Komocho, Av Ho-Rachamim, Va-Y’hi Binsoa, Ki Mi-tziyon, Boruch Shenosan Toroh,Adonoy, Adonoy, Va-Ani S’filosi, Sh’ma Yisroel, Gad’lu I, L’cho Adonoyu, Y’halalu, Gad’lu II, Hodo Al Eretz, Ki Lekach Tov, Etzs Chayim, Hashivenu.

Helfman, Max: Sabbath Repose, Shabbat M’nuchah, Friday Evening Service for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ, Edited by Emanuel Rosenberg and Florence S. Helfman; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1969, 47 pages.

Written by Rabbi Judah Cahn (Metropolitan Synagogue of New York), this short biography of Max Helfman begins with “One of the great chapters in the history of the American-Jewish community is the story of the renaissance of liturgical music which has taken place within the past twenty-five years.” He continues ... “never in Jewish history was as much attention given to the whole area of liturgical music than within this period of Jewish history."

Helfman was born in Radzin, Poland, May 25, 1901 and came to the United States in 1909. He attended the David Mannes College of Music and was graduated from the Curtis Institute were he studied composition with Rosario Scalero and conducting under Fritz Reiner. In essence Cahn extolls his traditionally authentic compositions, artistic craftsmanship and spiritual dedication in more than 200 songs, choral ballets and settings of Israeli folk songs. He was Music Director of the Brandeis Camp in Winterdale, Pennsylvania for 18 years and fulfilled the same role at Brandeis Camp in California. He helped found the School of Sacred Music at Hebrew Union College in New York and created the School of Fine Arts at the University of Judaism in Los Angeles. "He raised up many disciples ... hundreds of musical personalities in our country owe their initial interest in in Jewish music to their association with him, to his personality and the bottomless well of humor and musical knowledge which he transmitted so ably and effectively to his students. Maurice Levine, Emmanuel Rosenberg, Gershon Kingsley, Jack Gottlieb are only a few ..."

Contents:
L’cha Dodi, Bar’chu, Sh’ma Yisrael;, Thou Shalt Love The Lord Thy God, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Yism’chu, Hashkivenu, May The Words I, May The Words II, Ahavat Olam, Magen Avot, Kiddush, Vaanachnu, On That Day, Adon Olam.

***Helfman, Max: Music for a Mourner’s Service for cantor, mixed chorus (s.a.t.b.), piano or organ, Words by Norman Corwin, Transcribed Charles Davidson; Mills Music, 1965, Assigned Transcontinental Music Publications, 1979, 23 pages.

Introduction by Charles Davidson:  “He had the unique ability to fire and inspire any who heard him speak or watched him teach or direct. This Memorial Service is printed posthumously.” 

Contents:
Hasten the Day, Eulogy, El Male Rachamim (Eulogy), Blessed Are They That Mourn.

Isaacson, Michael: Hegyon Libi, Sabbath Evening Service (The Meditations of My Heart) for Cantor, Two Part Choir, String Quartet and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1971, 42 pages.

In the foreword Isaacson explains that the service was composed in 1969 and commissioned by Cantor Robert Harmon (Temple Beth El, Great Neck, NY) and "printed through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. David Falk (Temple Brith Kodesh, Rochester, NY). Written during his student years at the Eastman School of Music, thanks are accorded to Robert Starer and Cantor Stephen Richards." If a string quartet is not available, Isaacson instructs that small organ cue notes “may be employed to fill out the sonority.”

Comments:
An innovative, ambitious effort by an emergent composer.

Contents:
Candle Lighting, L’cha Dodi-Opening Hymn, Bar’chu, Sh’ma, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Silent Meditation, Yih’yu L’ratson, Anthem-Shalom Alechem, Adoration, Music Under The Recitation of the Kaddish, Kiddush Closing Hymn-Adon Olam, Music Under Benediction and Final Amens.

***Isaacson, Michael: Kol Sason (A Sound of Joy) A Marriage Service, (Tenor Cantor, Organ, Soprano Recorder, Percussion); Transcontinental Music Publications, 1972, 24 pages.

Contents:
Processional, Opening Welcome, Birchat Erusin, Sheva B’rachot, Recessional.

Jacobi, Frederick: Sabbath Evening Service, According to the Union Prayer Book; Bloch Publishing Company, 1931, 42 pages.

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In the introduction, the publishers include a brief biography of Jacobi. Born in San Francisco in 1891 he studied composition with Rubin Goldmark and Ernest Bloch in America and with Paul Juon at the Hochschule fur Music in Berlin. He was the assistant conductor of the Metropolitan Opera Company from 1912–17. One of the founders of the American Music Guild, he taught for a short time at the Master School of United Arts in New York. His String Quartet on American Indian Themes (1923) and orchestral suite “A California Suite” (1917) and other works for orchestra and orchestra with chorus were well known. This service was especially written for the “dedication of the new Temple (Temple Emanu-El, NY).” (Note: The service was published under the auspices of the choir committee of Temple Emanu-El which included Lazare Saminsky.) An “Important Notice” declares that "the organ part is to be used in rehearsal; in performance only when absolutely necessary. The choral parts of this work have been conceived to be sung a cappella, the solo parts unaccompanied."

Contents:
Tov L’hodos, Borechu, Sch’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho I, Mi Chomocho II, W’shomru, O May the Words I, O May the Words II, Wa’anachnu, Adon Olom.

Jacobi, Frederick, Arvit L’Shabbat, Friday Evening Service No. 2; Transcontinental Music Corporation, 1952, 104 pages. 

This service was a Park Avenue Synagogue commission. The published edition states the following in the preface: “The composer benefitted greatly from frequent conferences with Cantor David Putterman. The work aims at a simplicity which, in certain numbers, may lead to congregational participation. It is conceived as an architectural entity: its twenty-one numbers are held together by the recurrence of several musical motifs and by a planned sequence of tonalities. This Service, regarded by the composer himself as the crowning achievment of his life and called by him, with premonition perhaps, as his ‘last will and testament,’ had just been sent to the printers, when on October 24, 1952 Frederick Jacobi succumbed to an heart ailment.”

Contents:
Prelude, Ma Tovu, Sheeru Ladonoy, Tov L’hodos, Bor’chu, a) El Chay V’kayam b) V’ahavos’cho, Sh’ma Yisroel, Silent Prayer, Mi Chomocho, Hashkivenu, V’shomru, Reader’s Kaddish, Silent Devotion and May the Words, Vay’chulu, Kiddush, Va-anachnu, Mourner’s Kaddish I, Mourners Kaddish II, Ono B’choach (Hymn) Benediction, Postlude.

Janowski, Max: Avodath Hakodesh Shel Kehilath Anshe Maariv, Musical Sabbath Service for Mixed Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1960, 34 pages.

Contents:
Tov L’hodos, L’cho Dodi, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, V’Shomru, May The Words, S’u Sh’orim, Etz Chayim, Va-anachnu, On That Day.

Janowski, Max: Bayom Hahu, On That Day for Cantor, Soloists, Chorus and Organ; Friends of Jewish Music, 1978, 63 pages.

A dedication notes that the Service was commissioned by the members of Congregation Emanu El, Houston, Texas, in honor of Rabbi Robert I. Kahn and on the occasion of his retirement.

Contents:
Hal’lu et Adonai kol goyim, Hadlikat ner shel shabbat, Bar’chu, Mi Chamocha, Atah kadosh, Modim , Meditation –Oseh shalom, Al sh’losha devarim, Sh’ma Yisrael–L’cha Adonai, Eyts Chayim–Hashiveynu, Aleynu, Bayom Hahu, Adon Olam, Eyn Keyloheynu, Yevarech’cha, On That Day.

*Kingsley, Gershon: Shabbat for Today (Oh Sing Unto The Lord, A contemporary Sabbath Eve Service), for Cantor, Soloist, Narrator, Mixed Choir and Instrumental Ensemble; Kingsley Sound Inc., distributed by Transcontinental Music Publications, 1968/1975, 64 pages.

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In the introduction–“The premiere performance was an electrifying moment, a stirring meld of chorus, orchestra and modern electronic effects in praise of God ... Young children and teen agers often reacted as if they were understanding the ancient meaning of the Sabbath Eve Service for the first time ... they are hearing it at last in a musical environment they can understand. The work and its subsequent performances ... soon Shabbat for Today was being performed in reformed (sic) synagogues from New York to Los Angeles” [Preface]) were in many respects watershed events. Given the instrumentation of electronic organ, electric guitar, electric bass, electric harpsichord, drums, prepared tape and Moog Synthesizer, the service invoked interest from that aspect alone. The composer had already ‘mastered the intricasies of the most complex synthesizers’ (the Moog Synthesizer), was well known as a composer of popular records, commercials and films and founder of the performing group, the Moog Quartet.”

Comments:
Regarding the work, the melodic lines are in high registers, accompaniments are uncomplicated, usually not more than four voices and always with a rhythmic drive. There are some awkward spellings of Hebrew texts. A direction for the Mourner’s Kaddish instructs that the Hebrew and its English translation be read at the same time.

Contents:
Prelude, Bar’chu,Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, V’shomru, May the words, S’u Shorim, Boruch Sh’nosan, L’cho Adonoy, Gadlu Ladonoi, Eyta Chayim, Kiddush, Interlude, Adoration, Ba Yom Ha-Huh,Mourner’s Kaddish (Spoken), The World is Rolling On, Priestly Benediction (Spoken), Final Amen.

Kingsley, Gershon: Shiru L’adonai, Sing to God, A Friday Evening Service for Cantor, Mixed Choir (SATB) and Keyboard; Transcontinental Music Publications, n. d., 68 pages.

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Comments:
Tuneful and rhythmic.

Contents:
Prelude, Shiru L’Adonai, L’cha Dodi, Bar’chu, Ahavat Olam, Mi Chamochah, Hashkiveinu, V’shamru, Silent Devotion, Yih’yu L’ratsonVay’chulu, KiddushAleinu and Va’anachnu, Adon Olam.

Kosakoff, Reuven: Lichvod Shabbat. (Honoring the Sabbath) for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music, 1963, 59 pages.

A Park Avenue Service commission. Kosakoff in the preface: “Two quotations; the first by Salomone Rossi (1570-1628), ‘The Lord helped me and He put into my mouth new songs which I composed in a planned manner and weaved into sweet and pleasant voices, moved by the spirit of God. And my lips will not cease to extol the songs of David, King of Israel, and to revitalize and discipline them according to the laws of music.’ The second quote is from the writings of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), ‘In painting, in music and actually in all the formative arts, the design is what is essential. The fundamental prerequisite for taste is not that which gratifies, but rather that which pleases by its form.’ Each prayer setting bears the stamp of a distinct musical form, be it that of a canon, a chaconne, a passacaglia or others. The modal scales which I used are identified with Jewish worship. Whatever pattern I followed, I always aimed at simplicity of expression, designed to be easily understood and remembered.”

Comments:
Hebrew and English texts; because Hebrew words are sometimes repeated, the English words may have been the ones originally set. Further review of the music should inquire after the forms as stated in the preface.

Contents:
Prelude and Fugue, Mah Tovu, Psalm 29, L’cho Dodi) Choral Response b) Likras Shabos c) Hisorari, Bo-i V’sholom, Psalm 93, Psalm 98, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, K’rias Sh’ma, Mi Chomocho I, Mi Chomocho II, Hashkivenu, Kaddish, Silent Devotion (Passacaglia), Yih’yu L’rotzon I (May the Words I), Yih’yu L’rotzon II (May the Words II), Vay’chulu, Kiddush, Adoration a) Va-Anachnu b) V’hoyoh Adonoy (And On That Day), Mourners’ Kaddish (Organ Meditation), Adon Olom (The Lord of All).

Landau, Siegfried: A Friday Evening Service; The Bloch Publishing Company, 1956, 84 pages.

In the preface Landau writes: “One of the major reasons for Jewish survival in the face of vicissitudes which proved fatal to so many other people is the ability of the Jew to absorb contemporary influences. This is possible when he rests his philosophy securely on the sturdy base of Jewish tradition. Danger lurks when the golden middle road of blending the past with the present is forsaken and one veers to either extreme of the road. Traditionalism alone leads to a seemingly safe isle of purism, which creates a cultural ghetto extremely helpful in a fight for survival in hostile surroundings. However, under normal conditions, it leads to inversion and repetitive sterility. On the other side, complete rejection of traditional ties creates a cultural movement without roots, direction or individuality. In my Friday Eve Service I tried to utilize much source material of our Jewish musical tradition: Cantillation, Oriental and European-Sephardic and Ashkenazic Nusach (prayer mode). However, a musical homogeneity in a contemporary sense was attempted in the manner of its presentation. In the musical technique of setting the prayers, the distribution of material for cantor, chorus and congregation and the function of the organ, I tried to keep aware of the often forgotten fact that the synagogue is not a prayer.” 

Comments:
A Park Avenue Synagogue Commission. Landau taught conducting and secular repertoire at the Cantors Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary; he was music director of Shearith Israel (Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue) in New York, he founded and conducted the Brooklyn Philharmonic (formerly Brooklyn Philharmonia), he conducted the Chattanooga Opera and was the long time music director of the Westphalian Symphony Orchestra. He and his wife perished untimely in a fire at their home in Upper New York State.

Contents:
Prelude, Psalm 95, L’cho Dodi, Psalm 92, Bor’chu, Uma-avir Yom, Ahavas Olom, Sh’ma, V’ahavta, Silent Devotion I, Mi Chomocho, Hashkivenu, V’shomru, Reader’s Kaddish, Silent Devotion II, May The Words, Va-y-chulu, Kiddush, Let Us Adore, Vaanachnu, On That Day, Mourner’s Kaddish Yigdal, Benediction and 3 Amens, Postlude.

Maul, William: Sacred Service for Cantor, Mixed Choir and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1971, 30 pages.

Contents:
Adonai Malach, Sh’ma Yisrael, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, May The Words, Va-Anachnu, Adon Olam, Y’varech’cha.

Meyerov, Joseph: Simchat Shabbat, Friday Evening Service for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1970, 59 pages.

Contents:
The Service was commissioned by Beth Sholom Congregation (Elkins Park, PA) in honor of its 50th Anniversary.

Contents:
Mah Tovu, L’cho Dodi, Adonoy Moloch, Borchu, MiChomocho, Hashkivenu, V’shomru, Chatzi Kaddish, May The Words, Kiddush, Adon Olom, Hashivenu.

Mills, Edgar, Chassidic Sabbath Morning Service, for Cantor and Choir; Transcontinental Music Publications, 40 pages, 1971.

Contents:
Shochen Ad, Borchu, Mi Chomocho, K’dushah, Yismach Moshe, V’shomru, V’lo N’sato, Elohenu, R’tseh, Modim Anachnu Loch, V’al Kulom, Y’vorech’cha, Sim Sholom, En Komocho, Ets Chayim, Kaddish, Na’aritscho, Olenu.

Newman, Richard: Torah Service for Sabbath Morning; Transcontinental Music Publications; 22 pages, 1965.

Contents:
S’u Sh’orim, Hovu Godel, Sh’ma Yisroel, L’cho Adonoy, Gad’lu, Hodo Al Erets, Toras Adonoy, Ki Lekach Tov, Eyts Chayim

Miron, Issachar (Michrovsky): D’ror Yikra (Proclaim Liberty) A Service for Sabbath and Sabbath Hanukkah, for Cantor, Various Soloists, Mixed Chorus and Organ, with Optional Flute, Piano and Percussion; Mills Music, Inc., 96 pages, 1964.

In the foreword Rabbi Judah Cahn describes the commissioned service as a remembrance of Jewish heroes and of Hanukkah as a season of dedication.

Contents:
P’nei Hanukah V’shabat N’kab‘lah, Three Hanukah Blessings, Hanerot Halalu Adonai Malah, Bar’hu, Sh’ma, Mi Hamoha, Hashkivenu, Hatzi Kaddish, Luley, Lamah Bat Tziyon, V’sham’ru, Yih’yuu L’ratzon, Magen Avot, Kiddush for the Sabbath, D’ror Yikra, Vaanahnu, Bayom Hahu, Maoz Tzur, Amen

***Piket, Frederick: Midnight Penitential Service, for Choir, Reader, Mixed Choir and Organ; text by Henry Ziegler; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1968, 24 pages.

Piket, Frederick: Shire B’ne Y’shurun (Short Hills Service) for Sabbath Morning; Horizon Music Publications, 1969, 56 pages.

Comments:
[Siegfried] Piket, conductor and composer of orchestral and vocal works, winner of the Mendelssohn Prize in composition, left Austria after it chose to be annexed by Germany and relocated to Spain and then the United States. In America he taught, became a temple organist and music autographer. He formed the Horizons Publishing Company. Piket directs that the Service can be performed with or without Choir. Well-written with several thematic devices: i.e. movement to a fifth, consecutive open fifths and fourths in the accompaniment and a three-note figure following the Kedusha. En Kelohenu is in a canonic form.

Contents:
Mah Tovu, Anim Z’mirot, Bar’chu, Sh’ma yisrael, V’ahavta, Mi chamocha, Tsur Yisrael,K’dusha R’tze, Sim shalom, Silent Prayer and May the Words, S’u Sh’arim, En kelohenu.

***Piket, Frederick: Memorial Service, for Cantor, Mixed Choir and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1969, 24 pages.

Contents:
Adonai Ma Adam, Oh What Is Man, Adonai Roi, Why Art Thou Cast Down a) for Tenor b) for Baritone The Martyr’s Prayer, Shiviti, Music for Silent Prayer, El Male Rachamim a) for Tenor b) for Baritone.

Putterman, David J. ed.: Synagogue Music by Contemporary Composers; G. Schirmer, 1951.

Foreword by Milton Steinberg, Rabbi of the Park Avenue Synagogue, New York City, commenting on the Jewish religion as an aspect of civilization and its association with Jewish Music. He concludes that the “tasks of Jewish Music [are]: the preservation and recapture of the past of Jewish music. The Adjustment of it to the musical present. The stimulation of new Jewish musical creativity.”

In the acknowledgements: “This book is the result of the efforts of many who have contributed towards its realization. We are grateful to Cantor David J.Putterman, who originally conceived the idea to commission noted contemporary composers to create new music for the Synagogue; to our Committee on Adult Education, which favored and encouraged it; to our Officers and Members of the Board who made possible the premiere performances of this music; and to the family of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Cohen, through whose magnanimous generosity this volume has been published; to each of the composers who contributed their creative genius to the enrichment of Synagogue music and to their graciousness in permitting this music to be published here; to their publishers, who cooperated voluntarily; to every member of the choir who worked zealously towards perfect performances; to Mr. Isador Geller, devoted and loyal organist; to Mr. Max Helfman, under whose inspiring conducting the music was rehearsed and performed; and to Cantor Putterman, for his artistic rendition of the cantorial solos.”

In an introductory paragraph Cantor David J. Putterman, the initiator of most of these compositions, explains that “the music contained in this volume is not meant to replace the traditional fixed prayer modes, but is rather intended to enrich the music of our time. It was commissioned for the purpose of enhancing Jewish worship; to encourage many composers to write for the Synagogue who otherwise may never have done so; and to contribute to the main stream of contemporary music.”

Comments:
Thirty-eight settings by an array of well-known composers are in this unusual volume. One sees clearly that Putterman’s effort to involve composers in creating contemporary music set to Jewish liturgical texts was successful. 

Contents:
Mah Tovu (David Diamond), Mah Tovu (Alexandre Tansman), Adonoy Moloch (Alexandre Gretchaninoff), Adonoy Moloch (Julius Chajes), Sheeru Ladonoy (Heinrich Schalit), Adonoy Moloch (Bernard Rogers), Mizmor LeDovid (William Grant Still), Lecho Dodi (Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco), Lecho Dodi (Jacques de Menasce), Tov L’hodos (Alexandre Gretchaninoff), Tov L’hodos (Arthur Berger), Adonoy Moloch (Henry Brant), Borechu (Paul Dessau), Borechu (Darius Milhaud), Hamaariv Arovim (Morton Gould), Ahavas Olom (Frederick Jacobi), Shema Yisroel (Paul Dessau), Shema Yisroel (Darius Milhaud), Lemaan Tizkeru (Salomo Rosowsky), Who Is Like Thee (Max Helfman), Mi Chamocha-Israel (Roy Harris), Hashkivenu (Leonard Bernstein), Veshomru (Leo Smit), Reader’s Kaddish (Ernst Levy), Prayer for Peace (Isadore Freed), May The Words (Isadore Freed), May The Words (Paul A. Pisk), Me’en Sheva B’rochos (Zavel Zilberts), Mogen Ovos (Herbert Fromm), Kiddush (Jacob Weinberg), Kiddush (A.W. Binder), Kiddush (Kurt Weill), Olenu-Adoration (Max Helfman), Olenu (Paul Dessau), Olenu (Leo Sowerby), Mourner’s Kaddish (Darius Milhaud), Adon Olom-The Lord of All (Lukas Foss).

Rosenberg, Emanuel: Shabbat Nusach S’fard, A Friday Evening Service for Cantor, Choir and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1970, 28 pages.

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An introduction by Rabbi Judah Cahn acknowledges that the work is a commission by “The Creative Arts Fund of the Metropolitan Synagogue of New York ... to fill a long needed element in Jewish liturgical music. With the exception of the music used in Spanish-Portuguese Synagogues, the music sung in almost all American Synagogues consists of Ashkenazic modes. This has come to pass because the liturgical renaissance which we are enjoying in this country has taken place primarily, in the Conservative and Reform Synagogues, where mixed choirs and organs are frequently utilized. The Spanish-Portuguese Synagogues are Orthodox in tradition , and therefore the music, as originally written is, for the most part, one line settings of the various melodies and modes. The Metropolitan Synagogue ... extends its gratitude to Mr. Emanuel Rosenberg ... arranging the Service for use in the contemporary Reform and which is worthy of greater use in all of our Synagogues.”

Comments:
All melodies are taken from published Sephardi sources. Simplistic settings.

Contents:
Prelude, L’cha Dodi, Barchu, Sh’ma, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Hashkivenu, Yih’yu L’ratson, Kiddush, Vaanachnu, On That Day, Adon Olam, Shir Hashirim.

Rosenberg, Emanuel: Mizmor L’Todah, Song of Thanksgiving, Solo Voice and Acc.; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1973, 24 pages.

Contents:
Psalm 100, Bor’chu, Sh’ma, Mi Chomocho, V’shomru, Yism’chu, Hashkivenu, May The Words, Kiddush, Va-anachnu, Bayom Hahu.

Rudinow, Moshe: Sabbath Morning Service; Bloch Publishing Co., 1955, 96 pages.

In the biographical notes: “Moshe Rudinow was born in Lubitch, Russia, in 1891. He started his singing career at an early age in the Synagogue of Tchernigov and continued it later in Kiev. He was graduated with honors from the Imperial Conservatory of Odessa in 1917. The same year he married the gifted concert singer Ruth Leviash, with whom he concertized extensively in Russia and Poland, settling eventually in Palestine. The following year Moshe Rudinow was invited to become cantor of Temple Emanu-El, New York City, a position which he held until 1948. ... After his retirement as a cantor, Rudinow moved to California, where he dedicated the remaining years of his life to musical composition. His Sabbath Evening Service appeared in 1949 and the present Sabbath Morning Service is his second published work. Other compositions of Moshe Rudinow are still in manuscript. His voice was preserved for posterity through many recordings. Cantor Rudinow passed away in Oakland, California, November 14, 1953.”

Comments:
One views in the Acknowledgment of contributors to fund the publication of this service, the names of some who were luminaries in the Jewish musical world: Gershon Ephros, Reuven Kosakoff, Lazare Saminsky, Lazar Weiner, Arthur Wolfson and Joseph Yasser.

Contents:
Ma Tovu, Bor’chu 1, Bor’chu 2, Sh’ma-Boruch Shem, Ahavo Rabo, Sh’ma Yisroel, V’ohavto, Mi Chomocho, Tzur Yisroel, Avoth L’Shabbat, Kedushah, L’dor Vador, Silent Prayer, Seu Sheorim, Hovo Godel, Boruch Shenosan Tora, Toro Tzivo Lonu Moshe, Bes Yaakov, Shema Yisroel, L’cho Adonoi Hageduloh, Gad’lu and Hodo Al Eretz, Toras Adonoi, Etz Chayim Hi, Adoration 1, Adoration 2, Adoration 3, On That Day, Mourner’s Kaddish, El Mole Rachamim, Yevorech’cho, El Odon, Ono Bekoach, Psalm CL, En Kelohenu.

Salkov, Abraham: El Hay’ladim B’Yisrael, Sabbath Eve Service for Cantor, Two or Three-part Youth (or Women’s Choir, Piano (or Organ) and Percussion, Transcontinental Music Publications, 1967, 60 pages.

In the preface Salkov writes: "As is implicit in the title, this service was originally intended to be used by Israeli children on the Kibbutz. Traditional nuschaot, Lithuanian and Chassidic as well as tropal–have been combined with Israeli rhythms thus putting into mordern form an ancient musical heritage."

Comments:
One questions why an American composer would create a “service” for children in an Israeli kibbutz. At times, there are as many as four lines for the percussionist instead of plotting them on a single staff.

Contents:
Ma Tovu, L’cha Dodi, Tob L’hodot, Bar’chu, Sh’ma Yisrael, V’ahavta, Mi Chamocha, V’sham’ru, Alenu, Shalom Alechem.

**Saminsky, Lazare: Holyday Services, Hymns and Responses for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur; Bloch Publishing Co., 1929, 54 pages.

In the opening remarks the publishers offer a listing of accomplishments and recent works of Saminsky. “Distinguished figure ... Director of the League of Composers and Music Director of Temple Emanu El ... founded Jewish music centers in Petrograd, London and New York. Among his major works ... a Biblical ballet, “The Lament of Rachel” ... recent opera-ballet, “The Daughter of Jeptha” ... “By the Rivers of Babylon,” “Sacred Songs of Palestine” ... Paris critic ... ‘real reflection of the grandiose poetry of the Bible.’"

In the introduction Saminsky discloses the prevailing attitude of, at least, the Reform Jewish synagogal community of the time. “This service is conceived with the idea of replacing the antiquated, obsolete and tearful parts of the Holyday music so much in use by the American synagogue. I have endeavored to introduce music more vigorous, more Hebraic in style and more in conformity with the spirit and sonority of the ‘Lashon Kodesh’ (Hebrew tongue). Wherever it was possible, I have tried to include the best of our classical synagogue compositions. I have composed an “Hajom T’amtzeinu” of my own, following the lines of our oldest synagogue chants. I have re-arranged, re-edited and completed the beautiful ‘En Komocho’ by Sulzer, deeply traditional in spirit, and which should be heard in our synagogues during the ‘mussaf’ service on Yom Kippur. I also have remodeled the excellent version of the traditional ‘Yigdal’ (sung on Yom Kippur Eve) by Eliezer Gerovitch of Rostov on Don, Russia, one of the greatest composers of Jewish religious music of the XIX Century. I believe this is the first opportunity to introduce Gerovitch’s work to the American synagogue. My own ‘Shofar Service,’ ‘Tovo l’fonecho’ and ‘V’nislach,’ covering the most solemn and important parts of the Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur services, follow devotedly the pathos and the Hebraic strain of those loftiest moments in the holydays’ services. Finally, I wish to point to the unfortunate usage, universally accepted but aesthetically and psychologically wrong, of finishing the Yom Kippur service, so permeated with music, without any strong musical cadence, which alone can give a clear-cut form to the service. The Union Prayer Book indicates very wisely that the concluding words, ‘The Lord will give his angels,’ should be sung by the choir , but usually they are read. The short closing chorus is written to correct this error (March, 1929, New York)."

Comments:
In 1928 A.W. Binder stated: “ I have always felt regretful of the fact that so little is heard in this country of the great works of the classic masters of Synagogue music; such as Sulzer, Lewandowski, Naumbourg, Nowakowsky and others. Why? Because these men realized how important it was for the Synagogue to retain its traditional melodies, for in these melodies one could feel the spirit and soul of the traditional Synagogue.” Saminsky obviously shared this philosophy. In this 1929 publication he included his arrangements of pieces by these “classic masters.”

Contents:
Eso Enai (I Lift Mine Eyes) Sochrenu, Horiu, Kedushah, Lift Up Your Heads, Adonoy, El Rachum, Toroh Zivo, Come Ye (Bes Yaakov), Sh’ma Yisroel, L’cho Adonoy, Shofar Service, The Lord Reigneth, For the Mountain Shall Depart, All Ye Dwellers on Earth, Hodu Al Eretz, W’anachnu Day Of Art Thous Cast Down, P’sach Lonu, The Lord Will Give.

Saminsky, Lazare: Sabbath Evening Service, According to the Union Prayer Book, Opus 26; Bloch Publishing Company, Fourth Edition, 1954, 44 pages (1–6, 21-28 missing).

Preface to the First Edition (1926) “In this, the Second Edition, I have included my settings of ‘Bor’chu’ and ‘Sch’ma’ by S. Naumbourg and Israel Lovy, eminent French-Jewish cantor-composers of the XIX Century, also my new ‘Mi Chomocho’ and ‘May the words,’ a full ‘Adoration’ and a new ‘Yigdal’ with a typical solo in traditional style.”

In the preface Saminsky explains: “It was my good fortune to be for many years President of the Music Committe of the Jewish Folk Song Society in Petrograd and member of the Baron Horatio Gunsbourg’s Jewish Ethnographical Expedition. Thus I acquired an intimate knowledge of the Hebrew religious melodies and folksongs and I heard and collected thousands of them among the Jews of Russia, Poland, Galicia, Western Europe, Turkey, Georgia and Palestine. Studying and analyzing those songs, I came to the following conclusions: The Hebrew traditional religious melody and particularly its most ancient and characteristic type, the cantillation of the Bible, as representing the genuine and valuable Jewish musical culture, has an aesthetic and historic supremacy of the recently created Jewish folksong. The would-be Jewish tonality, the so-called Aawa-rabo Gust (e, f, g#, a, h, c, d) [Ahavah Rabba liturgical mode, ed.], which is the beloved tonality of many Eastern Jewish domestic tunes (love songs, lullabies, wedding dances), also of many Chassidic songs and of some traditional religious melodies, is not proper to the highest type of Hebrew religious melody with its beautiful and majestic major, Aeolian minor or Mixolydian passages. In accordance with the melodic style of the old Hebrew melodies, I have conceived this service. ‘Tov L’hodos’ is composed in the style of the age-old melodic ‘coda jubilans’ used in cantillating the Scriptural passage ‘Noah motzo chen b’enei Adonay.’ The cantor and tenor solos of my own ‘Sch’ma Yisroel’ and the ‘W’shamru’ are conceived in the style of the traditional synagogue melody. The cantor solo in the first ‘Wa’anachnu’ is built on a way the people read the Psalter. I found it more appropriate to offer instead of my own ‘Adon Olom’ my transcription of the beautiful one by Solomon Rossi, the great Jewish Italian composer of the XVIIth century, who was the musical director at the court of the Duke of Mantua. But I found it necessary to remodel entirely Rossi’s choral construction and sonority, to insert a tenor solo and a new ending drawn from Rossi’s own musical texture.” (New York, February, 1926).

In the Publisher’s Notes about Saminsky is the following: “The distinguished composer and Music Director of Temple Emanu-El, New York, one of the most important Jewish congregations in the world, shares with Ernest Bloch the leadership in Jewish composition in the world. While a young student at the Petrograd Jewish Folksong Society, then just formed (1908) and was for many years its leading spirit and president of its art committee, composed of about twenty-five Jewish composers of prominence. ... Since he left Russia (in 1919) he has lectured on Hebrew music in Constantinople, Jaffa ... In the general music field, Mr. Saminsky is as prominent as in the Jewish world. He is a director of the ‘League of Composers’ of New York ... his symphonies, choruses and songs were performed frequently during the past years in London, Berlin ... and he was guest conductor of the New York Philharmonic, Colonne Orchestra, the Augusteo Orchestra in Rome, the Berlin Symphony, etc. The eminent London critic, Mr. Leigh Henry, wrote about Mr. Saminsky’s music: “Saminsky represents the lyric spirit of the Hebrew in modern music; he is, musically, the voice of Israel’s paen of joy and its exultation in the Promised Land. This invests the music of Saminsky with its youthful spirit, youthful in vigor, energy, optimism and joyousness. He is of the line of Jacob, not of Job.”

Contents:
Tov l’hodos, Borechu and Sch’ma Yisroel, Borechu (Lovy), Schma Yisroel (Naumborg), Michomocho I, Michomocho II, Michomocho III, W’shomru, May the Words of my Mouth, I, May the Words of my Mouth, II, May the Words of my Mouth, III, Waanachnu, Adoration and Waanachnu, Adon Olom, Yigdal.

Sargon, Simon A.: Sing His Praise, A Friday Evening Service for Youth Choir; Transcontinental Music Publications, (Union of American Hebrew Congregations), 1981, 50 pages.

Contents:
Come, Let Us Sing A New Song To God, L’cha Dodi, Bar’chu, Sh’ma, Mi Chamocha, Yism’chu V’shamru, Silent Meditation and May the Words, Torah Service: Lift Up Your Heads, Sh’ma-L’cha Adonai, Ki Mitziyon, Hodo Al Erets, Ets Chayim, Va-anachnu–On That Day, Sing His Praise.

Schalit, Heinrich: Sabbath Eve Liturgy, for Cantor, Mixed Voices (SATB) and Organ; Pub. Schalit, 1951, 91 pages

Contents:
In the preface Schalit describes his composition: “This work of Jewish religious music is a functional whole for the American Synagogue of our day. It contains the complete Sabbath Evening Service, with a variety of selections which may be blended into a wider musical program. It is in part a revised version of my “Freitagabend- Liturgie,” published in 1933, in Munich, Germany, and which has been out of print for many years. In its additional selections, Psalms, prayers and responses, not contained in the old edition, this “Sabbath Eve Liturgy” represents an entirely new creation. The important role of the CANTOR is demonstrated by the fact that out of the twenty-six selections in this book fourteen choral pieces have cantorial solos, and five numbers are solo selection without choir (#7, 10, 13, 17, and 20). The cantorial sections which may be are frequently provided with a higher and lower voice part wherever it seemed

The music for the CHOIR has three special characteristics: Firstly, a frequent change from melodic homophonic to harmonic and polyphonic style within one and the same selection, which gives the music an archaic, yet novel expression, in conformity with Hebraic melody and its inherent “modal” harmony. Secondly, exclusive use of melodic style within the same selection, as in #8, 9, 11, 14, and 24, where the choir sings 'in unison' while the organ gives mainly harmonic or contrapuntal accompaniments. Thirdly, the practicability for “Congregational Singing,” as indicated in the responses to the BOR'CHU and the SH'MA, as well as in the ADON OLAM. This practice of congregational unison singing may well be extended to other parts in the service where Unison singing is employed. The ORGAN, as the supporting and assisting partner of cantor and choir, has the significant function and responsible role of adding and giving color, meaning, and grandeur to the music as a whole. Nevertheless, a considerable part of the score may be rendered without organ, if necessary or preferred, provided that musical standards in the Synagogue are high. May this work serve its divine purpose to glorify God and His Holy Sabbath Day with new and exalted songs; with songs inspired by Israel’s own musical accents, as preserved in our ancestral memory and reborn through the creative mind and religious ferver of the Jewish composers of our age.

Denver, Colorado May 1951 Nissan 5711."

Comments:
Schalit is one of the most important and influential composers of Jewish music. While there is no Index of the 26 settings which follow, a reprinting of this work, with texts changed from Ashkenazic to Sephardic spellings, distributed by Transcontinental Music Publications (n.d.) does include a listing of the settings. Schalit’s reference to the 1933 Service is significant. Schalit in Germany and Binder and Saminsky in America were writing services with what they termed “Jewish” material (cantillation, nusaḥ hat'filah, modal scales, traditional tunes).

Contents:
Mah Tovu, L’chu N’ran’nah, The 97th Psalm, The 98th Psalm, L’chah Dodi, Tov Lhodot, Adonai Malach, Barchu, Sh’ma, V’ahavta, Mi Chamocha, Hashkivenu, V’sham’ru, Vay’chulu, Silent Devotion, May the Words, Kiddush, Lo Yarei’u, Sh’ma, Hinei Mah Tov, Or Zarua, Yimloch Adonai, Va’anachnu and Bayom Hahu, Adon Olam (a), Adon Olam (b), Benediction, Organ Postlude.

**Schalit, Heinrich: Sabbath Morning Liturgy; Pub., Schalit, 1954, 68 pages.

Contents:
In the foreword, as in his remarks in the earlier The Sabbath Eve Liturgy, Schalit again refers to the use of “original and traditional melodies, sources of Hebrew music.” What is new, however, is that in 1954 there is already a concern about, in Schalit’s words “more congregational singing” and “enabling congregations, however small, to use this Liturgy as a service for solo voice and organ.” It is revealing that Schalit anticipates a demand for some manner of congregational “participation” rather than attendees listening to performances, no matter how worshipful the music or the presentation.

Contents:
I. Introduction: a) Ma Tovu (Mixed Voices or Solo for High Voice, b) Ma Tovu (Solo for Medium Voice), Early will I seek Thee- Solo for High Voice, b) Early will I seek Thee- Solo for Medium Voice. 3. a) Aneem Z’meeros-Mixed Voices or Solo for High Voice b) Aneem Z’meeros-Solo for Medium Voice. II. Sabbath Morning Service (Shacharees L’Shabbos): Bor’chu, Sh’ma, Mee Chomocho, a) Tzur Yisroayl b) Tzur Yisroayl, Kedusha-Responses a) May the Words-Solo for High Voice, b0 May the Words-Solo for Medium Voice. III. Torah Service: Boruch Shenosan-Mixed Voices or Solo, Sh’ma I and II, a) L’cho Adonoy-Mixed Voices of Solo for High Voice, b) L’cho Adonoy-Solo for Medium Voice, a) Hodo Al Erets-Mixed Voices or Solo for High Voice, b) Hodo Al Erets-Solo for Medium Voice, a) Ayts Chayeem-Solo for High Voice, b) Ayts Chayeem-Solo for Medium Voice, IV. Close of Service: 16. a) Adoration-Solo for High Voice, b) Adoration-Solo for Medium Voice. Vaanachnu I, Vaanachnu II, Bayom Hahu, Ayn Kaylohaynu
.
Schalit, Heinrich: Hadrat Kodesh (The Beauty of Holiness), Sacred Service for Cantor, Solo Voices, Choir and Organ; Pub. Schalit, 1966, 55 pages.

Comments: Unlike his earlier services, Schalit passes-up the opportunity to explain his composition. There are no introductory notes. The Organ Prelude is a masterful, grand fugue. David Gooding, the Director of Music at the commissioning The Temple in Cleveland, Ohio was its organist. The Prelude with a full development not usually seen in the services of this kind, may have been written for him. The fugal treatment continues in Psalm V and throughout. The cantorial parts lean toward the traditional style. Schalit pays homage to the West European Ashkenazi tradition, i.e. Tzur Yisroayl begins with a cantorial flourish that sets the mode traditional to the prayer and Ovos, with some excursions, also follows the tradition. All accompaniments are canonical or fugal. A masterful work.

Contents:
Organ Prelude, Psalm V, Sh’ma Yisroeyl, V’ohavto and L’maan Tisk’ru, Mee Chomocho, Tzur Yisroayl, Ovos, K’dushah, Yih’yu L’rotson, Wake Me To Bless Thy Name (Solo Anthem), Olaynu and Va-anachnu, Amen.

Schwarz, Herman: Kol Emunah, The Voice of Faith, Friday Eve Service for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1946, 36 pages.

Comments:
In this piece there is minimal accompaniment excepting where there is either a cantorial or vocal solo part. In those cases an accompaniment is provided. Schwarz was the organist at a performance of the music of Arno Nadel in Germany in 1936.

Contents:
Prelude I, Prelude II, Mah Tovu, Tov L’hodos, L’cho Dodi a) Shomor V’zochor b) Likras Shabbos c) Hisorari d) Boi V’sholom

Contents:
Prelude I for Organ, Prelude II, Mah Tov, Tov L’hodos, L’cho Dodi, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel and Mi Chomocho, V’shom’ru, Silent Devotion, Mogen Ovos, Kiddush, Adoration, Let Us Adore b) Vaanachnu c) On That Day, Adon Olom.

Secunda, Sholom: A New Sabbath Service, Lichvod Ha Shabbat In Honor of the Sabbath, A Sabbath Eve Service for Cantor (tenor, baritone) and a chorus of young worshippers; unison or divided voices with optional accompaniment; Ethnic Music Publications, Inc, 1969, 64 pages.

Comments:
Born is the Czarist Empire, he began his musical career early in life, acting and singing in Yiddish musicals written by Abraham Goldfaden. Emigrating to New York with his family in 1908, he became a noted child-cantor. When his voice changed he studied music and taught piano. He worked in comedy theater in the chorus, wrote for the Yiddish Theater and for a short while studied orchestration with Ernest Bloch. He played accordion and hosted a children’s program as “Uncle Sholom” for years on radio station WEVD. In 1932 he wrote the melody for the popular song Bay mir bistu sheyn as well as Dos kelbl, later known as “Donna, Donna.” With Abraham Ellstein, Joseph Rumshinsky and Alexander Olshanetsky, he was one of the “big four” of composers in New York City’s Second Avenue (Yiddish Theater). Here, Secunda has written a service for a traditional-style cantor with expected choral exclamations punctuating the accompaniment at the expected pauses. The organ (piano) part is, at times, florid and colorful. V’ohavto is set with both Hebrew and English sung concurrently. The Kiddush and Retsei might appropriately be categorized as concert numbers.

Contents:
Shiru Ladonoy, L’cho Dodi, Bor’chu, Arbit, Sh’ma, V’ohavto, Mi Chomocho, Chatzi Kaddish, Yih’yu L’rotson, Vay’chulu, Ovos, R’tsei Vimnuchoseinu, Kiddush.

Siegel, Benjamin: Tefilat Shel Y’ladim, Friday Evening Service for Cantor, Children’s Choir and Congregation; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1971, 25 pages.

In the introduction Rabbi Mordecai Waxman writes that “...we must seek to  topple the walls that divide Jewish youth from their parents and from the Jewish tradition ... (this) provides a medium through which children may enter into the prayers and the tradition by dint of a ‘joyful sound’.”

Comments:
Siegel presents simplistic tunes, unrelated to the expected modes for Friday evening matched with similar accompaniments.

Contents:
L’chu N’ran’nah, L’cha Dodi, Barchu, Sh’ma Yisrael, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Yism’chu, May The Words, Shalom Aleychem, Adon Olam, Benediction.

Smolover, Raymond, David Smolover: Edge of Freedom, Al Sof Hacheyrut, A Folk-Rock Service; AIM Music, 1968, National Federation of Temple Youth, 14 octavos (I, III, V, VII, X, XII, XIII missing).

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Comments:
An early service written for performance by young people. Mostly in rhymed English. Guitar chorded throughout with some written accompaniment. Many vocal ostenati under long cantorial lines.

Contents:
I, Shiyru L’Adonay, II. Lighting The Sabbath Candles, III. Lcha Dodiy, IV. Bar’chu, V. Sh’ma Yisrael, VI. V’ahav’ta, VII. Miy Chamocha, VIII. V’Sham’ru, IX. Yis’m’chu,
X. May The Words, XI. Edge of Freedom-Sermon, XII. Kiddush, XIII. Adoration, XIV. Adon Olam.

Stahl, Howard M., Benson, Bruce: Ma’agal Chozer (Circle Without End), a Folk Rock Service fort Sabbath Eve, for Rock Group, Youth Voices, Piano, Guitar, Drums, Flute, etc. Full Text and Music; New Horizon Music Publications, 1972, 19 pages.

Contents: 
Candle Lighting, Kiddush, L’cha Dodi, Bar’chu, Sh’ma Yisrael, V’shamru, Yih’yu L’ratzon, Sermon In Song, adoration, Va’anachnu, Adon Olam.

Starer, Robert: Sabbath Eve Service; MCA Music, 1971, 55 pages. 
(A note that Festive Prelude for Organ is published separately.)
Commissioned by the Park Avenue Synagogue.

Delicately transparent and spare. Motivic modules relate one to another throughout. The tenor with soprano and alto with bass voice parts are often combined. Accompaniments evolve through variants of a small number of notes. Many instances of canonic writing. Some dissonance and chromaticism. The vocal lines are angular and more suited, perhaps, to instruments. The composer views references to creation, God, forever, wonders (“brit olam, Adonai echad, l’olam, ose fele”) as demanding a forte dynamic, rather than, in some instances, the expected piano or mezzo piano. This may be reflective of Starer as a speaker of Hebrew rather than the schooled liturgist. 

Contents:
L’chu Neranenah (Responsorial for Cantor, Congregation [Unison Choir] and Organ, Lecha Dodi, Tov Lehodot (Responsorial [as above]), Bar’chu, Sh’ma, Mi Chamocha, Hashkivenu, (For Alto Solo, Cantor, Men’s Choir [TB] and Organ), Veshamru, Amidah (Silent Prayer), May the Words (Soprano Solo, Mixed Chorus and Organ), Elohenu velohey avoteynu, Kiddush, Vaanachnu, Vehaya Adonai., Mourners’ Kaddish (For Organ),Adon Olam.

*Stark, Edward J.: Sefer Anim Zemirot, Musical Service for the Eve of Atonement, According to the Union Prayer Book For Jewish Worship; Bloch Publishing Co., 1912, 180 pages.

Comments:
Turn-of-the-century cantor and composer who brought a new musical perspective to the American Reform Movement. Stark was the son of a well-respected cantor and brought up in the Sulzer tradition (see Neil W. Levin, biographical sketch of Edward Stark). Stark included traditional nusaḥ ha-t'fillah (prayer modes and motives) in his compositions. 

Contents:
Psalm CXXX, V’nislach, S’lach-no, Vajomer, Boruch, Bor’chu, Eternal Truth (Chant), Mi Chomocho, KI Vajom, Sochrenu, Yaaleh, Prepare To Meet They God, Like as a Father.B Elohenu (Recitative), Tovo L’fonecho, Chotonu, Al chet (Antiphonal chant), Ki Onu, Day of God, Responses, Adoration, On That Day, Yigdal.

Morning Service for the Day of Atonement:
The Lord of All, Boruch Adonoy, Yimloch, Amen, Amen,Podeh Adonoy, Yehi Chasdecho, May the Words, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi-Chomocho, Boruch Attoh, Elohenu,Turn us again, I, the Lord, Organ Interlude, Tovo l’fonecho, Chotonu, Al Chet, Ki Onu, Organ Interlude, Seu Sheorim, Adonoy, Ovinu, Sh’ma Yisroel, L’cho, Adonoy, Yehallalu, Hodo al Erez, Ez Chayim, The Sinner’s Tear.Afternooon Service: Redeem Israel, And I, through righteousness, They shall not hurt, Show me a token, The Lord giveth strength, O continue, Let all who seek thee, Unesanneh Tokef, Kammoh, Useshuvoh, Olenu, Ono Adonoy, Organ Interlude, Boruch Shem, Yimloch, The Sacrifice, My soul, Shall I say Unto God, Darkecho, , Hayom Teammezenu, Blessed be the God, En Komocho, Sh’ma Yisroel, L’cho Adonoy, For He Satisfieth, Yehallelu, Hodo al Eres, Ets Memorial Service: O Lord, what is Man, O, what is Man, O, what is Man, Why art thou cast down, Forget thine Anguish, Shivisi, Kaddish Responses, Thy Glory.Concluding Service: Rejoice, Bless the Lord, The Sun goes down, Kedushah, El Noro, Elohenu, P’sach Lonu, Lift up your heads, Amen, Vaanachnu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Boruch, Benediction, The Lord.

Steinberg, Ben: Simchat Hashabbat, Torah Service for Saturday Morning Based on the New Union Prayer Book for Cantor and 4-part Choir; New Horizon Music Publications, 1976, 28 pages.

Contents:
Ki Mitziyon, Baruch Shenatan, Vaani Zot Briti, S’u Sh’arim, Sh’ma, Echad Eloheinu Gad’lu, L’cha Adonai, V’zot Hatorah, Y’hal’lu, Hodo al Eretz, Ki Lekach Tov, Etz Chayim Hi, Hashivenu.

Steinberg, Ben: L’cha Anu Shira, Sabbath Eve Service for Cantor, Choir, Congregation and Organ; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1973, 43 pages.

In the preface the composer states that “the musical traditions of the synagogue have always invited active involvement in the religious service by all participants. In this spirit this work is conceived as a ‘davening’ service in which melodic, rhythmic and harmonic elements combine to encourage active musical roles for cantor, choir, organ and congregation.” It was premiered in 1969.

Contents:
L’cha Dodi, Bar’chu, Sh’ma Yisrael, V’ahavta, Emet, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Avot, R’tseh Vimnuchatenu, Shalom Rav, Yiyu L’ratson, Va-anachnu, Bayom Hahu.

**Weinberg, Jacob: Sabbath Eve Service (Servizio Pentatonico),  according to the Union Prayer Book for Baritone (Cantor, Mixed Chorus and Organ, Op. 35); Self Published, Second Edition, 1935, 40 pages.

In the introductory note (to the First Edition) Weinberg writes: “This composition is based chiefly on a series of five tones, known as the Pentatonic Scale (the major scale without III and VII, or without IV and VII degrees). Research in Hebrew music gradually leads to the conclusion that Biblical chant originated on that basis. Analysis of Torah cantillation (classification of Hebrew neumes) offered by Solomon Rosowsky, and especially Joseph Yasser’s theoretic foundation of the pentatonic scale strengthen the veracity of this statement. Modern conception of pentatonic music involves serious hardships in harmonization. Progressions of perfect consonances alone, evidently, cannot satisfy a twentieth century ear. As a tentative solution of the problem the pentatonic omnichord (simultaneous combination of all tones of a mode) [ed. treble staff with five half note chords] is being used here, complete or incomplete. Derivations of the pentatonic, the hexatonic and heptatonic scales, will be found in several portions of this score, as, for instance, in Adon Olom whose poetry (XV century) corresponds to the epoch of strict diatonicism. Rhythmo-metrical structure of Hebrew speech and the free improvised Oriental singing of Psalm could hardly be comprised within the limits of square symmetry. Irregular time-signature seems, therefore, appropriate at times, and bar accentuation should be accepted in a relative sense. The importance of the Organ part in Jewish worship has long been overlooked. Once admitted to the synagogue (according to numerous Biblical testimonies), this mighty and picturesque instrument is certainly entitled to full recognition. Short preludes, interludes and postludes, additional voices in the accompaniment and two soli (Silent Devotion and Kaddish) are designated to improve the inferior role of the organ in the synagogue. A Semitic treatment of the organ has its word to say in the effort of Jewish composers to revive the art of David and Solomon.”

Comments:
Weinberg was a prolific composer of orchestral, choral and piano works, lecturer, Jewish Musical Festivals organizer, faculty member at Hunter College, New York College of Music and the Hebrew Union School of Sacred Music. He was a member of the Society for Jewish Folk Music in St. Petersburg and the composer of Hechalutz (The Pioneer) the first Jewish opera. (see Neil W. Levin, biographical sketch of Jacob Weinberg)

Contents:
Tov L’hodos, Borechu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, Veshomru, Silent Devotion (Organ Solo), May the Words (Chorus a cappella), Let Us Adore (Cantor), Vaanachnu, On that Day (Chorus), Kaddish (Organ Solo), Adon Olom. (Addenda) I. Adon Olom, congregational version, II. Amens (Chorus).

Weinberg, Jacob: 30 Hymns and Songs, Opus 51; Self Published, 1947, 63 pages.

Comments:
In the Hymns section Weinberg sets solo voice and simple four-part keyboard accompaniments to poems by Florence Montefiore, Penina Moise, Solomon Solis Cohen, Lilly Weitzman, Max D. Klein, Solomon Alkabetz and others. The accompaniments for part one (Hymns in English) are simple and appropriate. The vocal lines are in a medium range and do not exceed an octave. The American section contains, among other prose selections, a dramatized (reading-sung) setting of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, a paen to Christopher Columbus and Emma Lazarus’ The Statue of Liberty. Among others the Hebrew section contains a dramatic setting of Psalm 137. These last two sections have accompaniments which are more full and rich and harmonically more interesting. These Hymns and Songs were intended for use in “Congregation-School-Home.” It is evident that the composer is well-grounded in his craft. At the time of this publication Weinberg was already an established composer of works for strings, piano and chamber music (M. Whitmark, J. Fischer, Presser, G. Schirmer and others as well as European publishers in Berlin, Austria, Moscow etc.). Inside the back cover is an advertisement of an extensive list of Weinberg’s compositions that are “Scheduled for Publication.”

Contents: 
Hymns: 21 in English, a) 4 American, b) 5 Hebrew.

Weinberg, Jacob: Sabbath Service For Congregational Singing, According to the Union Prayer Book, Op. 45; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1959, 32 pages.

In his introduction Weinberg comments that while most of the music written for services is difficult to present without “intense rehearsing,” this work “aims to create melodious liturgical music with a direct appeal to the average worshipper.” Tov L’hodos sets the standard with a simple melodic line against octaves and open fifths. The vocal lines and accompaniments are simple. Harmonies are generally pentatonic. The two poems in English are set in hymn-style.

Contents:
Introduction, Tov L’hodos, Borechu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, Veshomru, Silent Devotion, May the Words, Father to Thy Dear Name, The Torah, Let us Adore, Vaanachnu, Adon Olom I, Adon Olom II.

**Weinberg, Jacob: Shabbat Ba-Aretz, for Cantor, Mixed Voices and Organ, (Composed in the Land of Israel); Transcontinental Music Publications, 1962, 80 pages.

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In his introduction Weinberg sets the scene for this work which is “profoundly influenced by the colorful environment and the soil out of which the Bible grew ... rooted in ancient Judaea (cantillation of the Pentateuch) and contemporary Palestine (secular lore) links Israel’s past to the present.” It is suitable for an oratorio or religious pageant and indicates performance time as 49 minutes and advises a three-part form for concert use. While the Sinfonia is written for the organ the composer may have had strings in mind. The florid string-like passages continue throughout the work as do Weinberg’s trademark octave and fifths.

Contents:
Sinfonia (Dawn on the hills of Jerusalem), Mah Tovu, Borchu, Shma Yisroel, Veohavto, Mi Chomocho, Tsur Yisroel, Kedusho, Silent Devotion, Yihyu L’Rotson, Seu Sheorim, Toroh Tsivoh, Shma Yisroel, Lecho Adonoy, Hodo Al Erets, Toras Adomoy, Ets Chayim, Vaanachnu, Mourners’ Prayer, Yevorechecho, Haleluyoh.


Weiner, Lazar: Likras Shabos, A Sabbath Evening Service for Solo Voice With Piano or Organ; Mills Music, Inc., 1954, Reassigned to composer 1972, Re-issued Transcontinental Music Publications, 16 pages.

Comments:
Very traditional.

Contents:
Lecho Dodi, Borchu A, Shma A, Borchu B, Shma B, Veohavto, Mi Chomocho, Veshomru A, Veshomru B, Yismechu, May The Words, Hashkivenu, Kiddush, Vaanachnu.

*Weiner, Lazar: Shir L’Shabbat, A Sabbath Service in The Hassidic Style For Cantor, Mixed Chorus (SATB) and Organ; Mills Music, Inc., 1963, 38 pages.
(Shir L’Shabbat Supplement for Use In Conservative Synagogues), 15 pages.

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Contents:
L’cha Dodi, Bor’chu, Mi Chomocho, Hashkivenu, V’shomru, Yismechu (missing pages), Kiddush, Let Us Adore and Vaanachnu, On That Day.

*Weiner, Lazar: Anim Zemiros, A Sabbath Morning Service for Solo Voice with Piano or Organ; Mills Music, Inc., 1964, 40 pages.

Contents:
Mah Tovu, Shachar Avakeshcho, Tov L’hodos, Anim Z’miros, Bor’chu, Sh’ma Yisroel, Mi Chomocho, Tzur Yisroel, K’dusha, May the Words, S’u Sh’orim, Sh’ma Yisroel L’cho Adonoy, Gad’lu - Hodo al Eretz, Etz Chayim, Etz Chayim (2nd Version), Adoration, Vaanach’nu.

*Weiner, Lazar, Shir L’yom Hashabos, Sabbath Eve Service for Cantor, Choir and Organ (Piano); Transcontinental Music Publications, 1972, 48 pages.

Comments:
Weiner has moved toward “congregational participation” in this service: In L’chu N’ran’nah the cantor is answered by a unison choir; in Vay’chulu the chant is divided between cantor and unison choir; the Kiddush and Oleynu strive for the same call and response.

Contents:
Prelude, L’chu N’ran’noh, L’cho Dodi, Adonoi Moloch (Psalm 93), Bor’chu, Sh’ma, Mi Chomocho, V’ne-emar, V’shomru, Chatzi Kaddish, Silent Devotion, Yihyu L’rotzon, Vay’chulu, Kiddush, Oleynu-Vaanachnu, Organ before Kaddish, Adon Olom, Amens for Benediction.

*Weiner Lazar: Zecher L’Maaseh, Friday Evening Service for Cantor and Choir; Transcontinental Music Publications, 1973, 40 pages.

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Contents:
Prelude, Bar’chu, Sh’ma Yisrael, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Hashkivenu, Meditation, Yih’yu L’ratzon, Kiddush, Yism’chu, Va-anachnu, On that day, Ani Maamin, Closing Sh’ma.

***Wohlberg, Max: Shirei Zimroh; Bloch Publishing Company, 1947, 43 pages.

In the preface: "This is a new musical setting of the complete Sabbath Morning Service according to the New Prayer Book published by the congregational participation for both Youth and Adult Services.” In the foreword, Zavel Kwartin confirms that this is a “useful work ... the melodies are based mainly on old traditional ‘Nusach Hat’filoh’ and that ‘because of the composer’s musical talent and Hebrew knowledge’ (he will in the future) create ‘work founded on our traditional modes for the future generations of cantors'."

***Wohlberg, Max: Yalkut Zemirotai, New Settings of the Sabbath Z’mirot; Ashbourne Music Publications, 1981, 54 pages.

Introductory Essay by Wohlberg on “V’shir E’erakh” of R. Yitzhak Luria ; then follow 40 new melodies for Shabbat. At the end of the book all texts are grouped as traditionally: L’leil Shabbat; L’yom HaShabbat; L’motza’ei Shabbat.

Wohlberg, Max: Arvit L’hol, A Complete Evening Service for Weekdays with Inclusions for Yom Haatzmaut, Hanukkah, Purim and Installations, For Cantor and Choir (SATB), Optional Organ Accompaniment, Arranged by Charles Davidson; Ashbourne Music Publications, Inc., 1972, 27 pages.

In the introduction The Publisher writes: “ ... Wohlberg, Professor of Nusah at the Cantors Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary, scholar, teacher ... based on the traditional weekday nusah ... [Wohlberg’s] penchant for the tastefully unusual.”

Wunsch, Ilse Gerda: A Sabbath Morning Service (Book Two) English Text by Rabbi Edward T. Sandrow, For Unison or Two-Part (S.A.) Chorus and Solo Voice with Organ or Piano Accompaniment; Mills Music, Inc., 1956, 32, pages.

Contents:
Mah Tovu, Bo-rachu, El Adon, Sh’ma Yisroel, Adonoi Elo-he-chem Emes, Mi Chomocho (B), K’dushah, Yismach Moshe, V’shom’ru, Sim Sholom, Torah Service, Va-anach-nu, V’ne-emar, Adon Olom.

**Wyner, Yehudi: Friday Evening Service, for Cantor (Tenor), Four Part Chorus of Mixed Voices and Organ, Associated Music Publishers, Inc, 1965, 75 pages.

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In the preface: “In composing the Service I tried to create an expression of  directness and intimacy, relevant to the modest, undramatic conduct of worship in the traditional synagogue. The atmosphere of the music seeks to draw the congregation in, to encourage a reverent yet joyous communion; to this end the voices have been given absolute primacy, and the organ the role of punctuation and color. Forms have been kept simple, polyphony avoided, and all elaboration of material kept to a minimum. Indeed, were it possible to further reduce the texture to a single line of adequate strength and richness, I would gladly do so; for I am more interested in the image than in its elaboration, the bare theme more than its variation and extension. Traditional fragments have been used in a very free way, but the traditionalism of the Service stems more from absorbed experience than applied method. I have confronted the multiple traditions which are my inheritance and expression of tradition.” What follows are meticulous directions concerning tempi, rhythms, the organ part, articulation and others.“The actual rendition of the Cantorial portion of p. 27 is suggested by the spacing of the notes: Close-faster; Spread-lower. This applies to the Cantor’s portion only, not the organ or chorus.”

Comments:
An important work composed by an important American Jewish composer; deserves an intensive analysis. The motivic cell is the interval of a fourth. The work is dedicated to his father, Lazar Weiner, a well-known composer of Yiddish song.

Contents:
Prelude, Mah Tovu, Shiru Ladonoy, L’choh Dodi, Bor’chu, Sh’maSlent Prayer, Mi V’hoyoh Adonoy, May the Father of Peace, Variant I, Variant II, Benediction.

*Yolkoff, Arthur: Shirat Atideinu, A Service of Friday Evening Worship for Youth Chorus, Transcontinental Music Publications, 1966, 48 pages.

In the preface Yolkoff writes: "Cantor Jerome B. Kopmar ... has shared my views and commissioned me to write a service of this kind for his fifty voice junior choral society. The challenge was greater than I had anticipated. Unlike creating a work for Professional singers, I realized the need for imposing certain limitations and restrictions on the music I was writing. The music would have to be melodically interesting, unpretentious yet challenging, grammatically correct and true to the spirit of each text. In most cases it was the text that determined the rhythmical pattern of the melodic structure."

Comments:
An unaccompanied vocal introduction of a tropal character sets the mood of the service. Lyrical, simple and uncomplicated vocal lines and a simple organ part throughout. The composer died at the untimely age of 54.

Contents:
Z’chor Et Yom Hashabbat, Hayom Yom Shabbat, Ma Tovu, Lecha Dodi, Tov Lehodot, Bar’chu, Ahavat Olam, Sh’ma Yisrael, Mi Chamocha, V’shamru, Kaddish, May The Words, Vaychulu, Kiddush, Shehashalom, Aleinu, Bayom Hahu, Shabat Shalom, Closing Amens.

Zilberts, Zavel: Niginoth Yisroel, Service for Sabbath Evening; Bloch Publishing Co., 1932, 40 pages.

Comments:
In the foreword, written by cantor-commissioners Simon Schlager (Temple Emanu-El, N.Y), Nathan Meltzoff (Temple Rodef Sholom, N.Y.), Isidor Frank (Mt. Neboh Temple, N.Y.), M. Cowen, B’nai Jeshurun, Newark, N.J.), W.A. Davidson, Temple Beth Emeth, Brooklyn, N.Y.), Zilberts is acclaimed “a master of Hebrew melody (utilizing) old Hebrew synagogal modes and ‘Nusach Hatfiloh’ ... the creator of a new utilization of these beautiful melodies in consonance with the spirit of the American Jew. It has often been said that he is the successor of Lewandowski, who remains unrivaled.”

A biography of Zilberts follows. In brief: Zilberts was born in Kerlin-Pinsk in 1881, where his father was the cantor. When his father died, the fifteen year old assumed his position in his synagogue. He stayed there for three years as cantor and also conducted a male choir of forty voices. He graduated from a conservatory in Warsaw and then went to Lodz as conductor of the “Hazamir” choir. From there he went to Moscow as Musical Director of the Moscow Central Synagogue (1906-1914) after which he returned to Lodz, again as conductor of the “largest choir in Russia,” the Hazamir Choral Society. He composed Habet Mishomayim following the pogroms in Kishinev. In Lodz Zilberts conducted major choral works by Haydn, Mozart and Handel “without the use of a score.” While there he composed works which included his famous Havdoloh. In 1920 he emigrated to the United States and became the Musical Director of the Cantors’ Association of America. In 1923 he famously led a choir of 500 voices in a Jubilee Concert in Madison Square Garden. At the time of the publication of this service (“expected to be the beginning of his efforts in behalf of the musical services for the American Synagogue”) Zilberts was the conductor of the Zavel Zilberts Choral Societies in New York and in Newark, N.J. The biography concludes with “ (Zilberts) is regarded as one of those rare composers who does not deviate from the purely traditional religious melodies.”

It is important to note his early work with the Hazamir Choral Society and its relevance to the 20th century rebirth of the choral movement in America largely due to the efforts of the contemporary Zamir Choral groups and the Zamir Foundation (Matti Lazar et al.).

This Service was probably a favorite in Reform synagogues. The writing is generally unspectacular with turn of the century harmonies. Several of the settings were widely used particularly Tov L’hodos,V’Shomru, Vaanachnu and On That Day. The Veshomru supports a traditional sounding baritone cantorial line with choir and organ; the phrases would have sounded familiar to worshipers with a traditional background. Zilberts eschews a tune in the through-composed Adon Olam, climactically concluding the Service.

Tov L’hodos, Bor’chu I, Bor’chu II, Sh’ma I, Sh’ma II, Mi Chamnocha, V’Shomru, Let the Words, I, Let the Words II, Kiddush, Adoration, Va’anachnu, On That Day, Adon Olam.

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