|B'motza'ei m'huḥa: Et y'min (Isaac Kaminsky)||04:01|
|B'motza'ei m'huḥa: D'rosh na||01:47|
|B'motza'ei m'huḥa: Zoḥalim (Joshua Lind)||02:28|
|B'motza'ei m'huḥa: Yotzer ata||00:46|
|B'motza'ei m'huḥa: Marom im atzmu||01:55|
|B'motza'ei m'huḥa: P'ne na (Ira Bigeleisen)||02:30|
|B'motza'ei m'huḥa: R'tze atiratam (Meyer Machtenberg)||04:13|
|Z'khor raḥamekha–Himmatze lanu||01:47|
|T'vi'enu (havi'enu, Joshua Lind)||02:50|
|Sh'ma kolenu (Joseph Rumshinsky)||06:23|
|Al ta'azvenu–Tavo l'fanekha||00:38|
|Hirshanu–Anenu–Mi she'ana l'avraham–Hu ya'anenu||01:09|
|Raḥamana (Joshua Lind)||01:59|
|Maḥei umasei–Makhnisei raḥamim||01:32|
|Maran d'vishmayya (Dan Frohman)||01:32|
|Shomer yisra'el (Yossele Rosenblatt)||04:43|
|Kaddish shalem, 'Hassidic Kaddish' (Jacob Gottlieb)||02:56|
The notes below pertain to the individual liturgical settings contained within this recording of a traditional s'liḥot service. For more on the liturgical and aesthetic parameters of the traditional s’liḥot service, see here. This recording is also available on the CD The First S’liḥot.
The entire rendition of the poem b’motza’ei m’nuḥa is a typical composite of various compositions for individual strophes, interspersed with cantorial improvisations for others and even with alternative refrain melodies. This pizmon has traditionally provided a musical centerpiece for the midnight First S’liḥot service. A few composers have set the entire pizmon as a purportedly cohesive composition, but most have set only one or perhaps a few of the strophes. The general practice that evolved in American synagogues has therefore been to plan a selection of strophes from various sources—ideally, of course, with an overall balance of contrasting styles. Even in the very few European sources that contain choral music for this text, such as the collection published in 1874 in Odessa by Joshua [Osias] Abrass (1820–84), only a few of the stanzas are included; and these are free compositions that do not allow rhythmically for the substitution of other strophes.
The aggregate rendition of b’motza’ei m’nuḥa recorded here is a microcosm of many of the clichés and idioms typical of orthodox and traditional choral style in synagogues where the eastern European brand of cantorial art prevails. Among these are intensely melodic solo passages for boy altos and sopranos; duets with the cantor; sustained bass solos; cantorial improvisations with choral responses and pedal point underpinnings; and fully composed sections that feature cantorial solo lines in harmony with choral expositions.
The setting of the poem’s initial strophe is a pastiche of traditional motives that was pieced together and arranged by Arnold Miller (1922–97) for the many choral services he conducted at synagogues in the greater Chicago area. Miller was a leading personality for many decades in the Jewish musical life of Chicago—as a composer, conductor, arranger, bandmaster, and pianist. The melody for the second line of the strophe, hat ozn’kha, was adapted from a tune he attributed to the esteemed cantor-composer and teacher of hazzanut, Joshua Samuel Weisser [Pilderwasser; 1888–1952].
The authorship of this setting of the sixth strophe, marom im atzmu, is uncertain. Cantor Joseph Malovany transcribed it from a live recording of a s’liḥot service sung by Cantor David Kusevitsky with a choir conducted by Morris Barash. An educated guess is that it was composed by Herman Zalis (1885–1969), who conducted, composed, and arranged for Kusevitsky for many years.
The penultimate strophe, p’ne na, was composed expressly for the Milken Archive by Cantor Ira Bigeleisen. His bass solo part reflects an idiomatic stylistic fixture of eastern European–oriented repertoire.
Meyer Machtenberg’s famous setting of the final strophe, r’tze atiratam, gained wide currency in American synagogues from its early recording by the world-renowned and preeminent cantor Yossele [Joseph] Rosenblatt (to whom it has sometimes been erroneously attributed, since his initial recording failed to credit Machtenberg). This piece has acquired numerous subsequent expansions and extended arrangements, with multiple recurrences of the signature melody for the refrain, lishmo’a. The one here, however, retains the simplicity of the original.
T’vi’enu [havi’enu in some variant readings] incorporates a verse from Isaiah 56:7 and contains a messianic message that is interpreted dramatically and vividly in this setting by Joshua Lind. This is an unabashedly theatrical treatment of the type that found great acceptance in traditional eastern European–oriented American synagogues. One is tempted to ascribe its kitsch to American Jewish popular influence, but its flavor is not so far afield from other traditional approaches to this text. Some of its most familiar settings by other composers—e.g., Kalechnik and even Eliezer Gerovisch (1844–1914), whose stylistic orientation is probably the most classically westernized and dignified among all eastern European synagogue composers—also betray a marchlike, almost triumphal military character. It has even been suggested that such lively dramatizations provide an aesthetic moment of emotional relief just prior to the following sober supplication, sh’ma kolenu, which is a fervent, heartrending plea.
The first part of sh’ma kolenu is taken from the daily service (from the section known as the sh’mone esrei, or the Eighteen Benedictions). The remainder of the text as it appears in the s’liḥot liturgy (generally considered part of the same s’liḥa prayer) is derived from Lamentations (5:21) and Psalms. Its cantorial rendition generally constitutes one of the emotional peaks of the First S’liḥot service. Joseph Rumshinsky (1881–1956), whose setting is sung here for most of the text, was primarily a Second Avenue Yiddish theater composer, songwriter, and conductor, and he is remembered as one of the giants of that popular genre. But like many of his most successful fellow Second Avenue songwriters, such as Sholom Secunda, Abraham Ellstein, and Alexander Olshanetsky, he also wrote (and sometimes conducted) for the synagogue. This is one of his best- known liturgical pieces. In this rendition, free cantorial improvisation has been substituted for the last section, a typical option in such traditional services.
Ashamnu is the short form of the communal confession. It consists of twenty-four alphabetically arranged expressions and manifestations of sin and transgression. The rendition here follows what has become the basic melodic pattern in American synagogues, based on some European traditions. But the solo vocal line in this arrangement mirrors the refined variant sung by Moshe Koussevitzky. In the synagogue, the choral responses would be joined by the congregation each time, and the recurring wordless tune that interrupts the recitation of collective transgressions is a ubiquitous congregational melody reserved for this occasion in nearly all traditional American services. At one time, there were many extant alternative melodies, but this particular tune has emerged as virtually exclusive.
The curious habit of attaching a lighthearted, homey tune to one of the most awe-inspiring and solemn moments in the liturgy has Hassidic origins in Europe, and even some humorous justifications in Hassidic folklore. S. Y. Agnon, in his Sippurei habesht (Stories of the Baal Shem Tov), relates a story in which the juxtaposition of joyful tunes against the text of the confessional is likened to the gladness felt by a devoted servant upon clearing rubbish from his king’s court. Yet the classical European published synagogue music collections contain no such tuneful adjuncts to the confessional. This custom, now standard in most traditional Ashkenazi services, may be but one further example of the lasting Hassidic imprint on the development of eastern European hazzanut during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Joshua Lind's version of raḥamana, an Aramaic text written in Babylonia, is another case of humble supplication accompanied by mirthful song—in this case even akin to a quasi-Hassidic dance tune. Although other, more classically oriented settings of raḥamana—such as an extended composition by Zilberts—treat the opening lines with deep reverence and humility, most composers (including Zilberts) have nonetheless also set the final phrase with spirited optimism: “Now, soon, in our own time!”
Maran d’vishmayya is also in Aramaic. The composer of this setting, Dan (David) Frohman (1903–77), was the music director of a major Conservative synagogue in the Detroit area for many years. He frequently adapted folklike phrases in his pieces.
Celebrated as a legend both during his lifetime and after his death more than any other cantor in the pantheon of the great virtuosi, Yossele [Joseph] Rosenblatt was one of the supreme cantorial artists of all time. And especially to the lay public, non-Jewish as well as Jewish, he remains probably the most famous cantor of any generation. His shomer yisra’el is one of his most classically constructed and best-known compositions. It is sung here in a contemporary arrangement by the gifted South African–Israeli composer and arranger Raymond Goldstein, who has retained the full spirit and flavor of Rosenblatt’s style.
Avinu malkenu was improvised, according to the pertinent talmudic reference (b. Taanit 25b), by Rabbi Akiva in the 1st or 2nd century and was originally a nucleus of only five lines, with the preceding refrain on those two initial words of address (Our Father, Our King). It was subsequently increased to 29 lines in the Sephardi rite, 38 in the German Ashkenazi rite, and 44 in the Polish, or eastern European Ashkenazi rite. Only the last line, however, is customarily sung toward the conclusion of the s’lihot service. This melody is universal among American synagogues, but its origin is undetermined. It is not found in any notated European sources.
The full kaddish (kaddish shalem) (track 12, CD 2) concludes the s’liḥot service, just as it was begun with the half kaddish. Although there is no prescribed traditional version for this concluding kaddish, which can be simply and syllabically chanted, the engaging rendition here—which has become increasingly popular in recent decades—is based on a setting composed in Europe by Jacob Gottlieb (1852–1900), better known as Yankl der Heizeriker (Yankl the hoarse one, or husky-voiced one). It is now commonly labeled “Hassidic kaddish,” since Gottlieb apparently claimed that he had heard Hassidim singing the concluding kaddish of the Rosh Hashana mussaf service “cheerfully” (though not necessarily to this specific tune). Neither its principal melody nor its secondary motives are found in the repertoire of any authentic Hassidic traditions; and Gottlieb referred to his creation simply as “yitgaddal”—the initial word of the text incipit. According to Gottlieb’s son Berl, he even substituted the Yiddish words a heym for the last pronouncement of v’al (and all [Israel] ), which he said gave it the meaning, “and all can now go home [since your prayers have been accepted].” This basic composite tune was sung and recorded by both Yossele Rosenblatt and Moshe Koussevitzky, in modified arrangements. It has therefore often been attributed erroneously to one or the other—including in supposedly reliable published sources. The original manuscript, however, formerly in the possession of Gottlieb’s grandson until his own death, together with the family oral history as passed down by Gottlieb’s son—also a cantor in various European cities and then in Newcastle upon Tyne, in England—leaves no doubt concerning authorship.
The basic version that has emerged through oral transmission to establish its present identity, however, departs in some significant respects from that original manuscript. This includes even differences in tonality, especially in the opening section. Moreover, numerous arrangers have tinkered with the piece, leaving a stream of variant renderings, adaptations, and altered choral elements—though none appear to have consulted the Gottlieb manuscript. The arrangement created for this recording also follows the melodic contours of the more commonly recognizable variants. Even though the Rosenblatt and Koussevitzky recordings introduced this kaddish many decades ago, its popularity increased remarkably over the course of the last quarter of the 20th century. So widespread had its use become by the end of the century that it is now frequently sung on Sabbaths and Festivals, even though Gottlieb intended it more narrowly for the High Holy Days.
At the end of Sabbath rest we hasten to come, in anticipation of You.
You, whose habitation is praise, from the heavens turn Your ear toward us.
LISHMO'A EL HARINA
Listen to the song! Listen to the prayer!
Awaken Your mighty right arm and perform Your deeds of valor.
Isaac our ancestor was justly bound to an altar; In his stead, though, You provided a ram—a ram to be tied, a ram to be sacrificed.
When Isaac’s descendants cry out in the night, shield them too, if You will.
Examine well, if it please You, those who search for You, seeking Your presence.
Search for them from Your heavenly abode, And deafen not Your ear to their pleas.
Fearful and trembling before the Day of Judgment, Your anger and dunning demands make them ache like women with childbirth pains.
Let it please You to clear away their uncleanliness and let them testify to Your many wonders.
You are the Creator of every creature created.
At the beginning of time You prepared remedies to aid them in the narrowest of their straits, To gift them, though undeserved, from the hidden treasure house of Your grace.
MAROM IM ATZMU
Highest One, if the transgressions of Your community have multiplied, Strengthen Your folk, if it please You, from the treasures prepared in Your heavenly sanctuary.
Your people come to You begging for undeserved grace.
Look, please, to our adversities, and not to our sins.
You, who perform marvelous wonders, justify those who cry out to You. Give heed to their supplications, God, Lord of hosts.
Accept their requests when they stand before You in the night.
Willingly give those requests attention, as You would with sacrifices, with burnt offerings [in Temple days].
Show them Your wonders, Your greatness.
Remember Your Mercy, O Lord, for it extends from time’s beginning to eternity....
Remember for (the sake of) Your servants; remember for Abraham, for Isaac, and for Jacob. Do not focus on the perverseness of this people, on its wickedness, on its sinfulness. Remember for our sake the covenant with our ancestors, as You yourself have said: “And I will remember my covenant with Jacob, and also my covenant with Isaac, and yet also my covenant with Abraham...I’ll remember... and the land—I’ll remember the land as well.” Keep before You the covenant with our first forefathers as You had promised!
Be available to us when we call, as it is written in Scripture: “And when you search there for the Lord your God, you will find Him—if you seek with all your heart and all your soul.”
Bring us to Your sacred mountain and let us rejoice in Your House of Prayer, as it was promised us in Scripture, which tells us: “And I will bring them to my sacred mountain and let them rejoice in my House of Prayer. All their offerings will be acceptable on my altar: for my house will be called a House of Prayer for all nations.”
Hear our voice, O Lord, our God, have compassion and mercy on us. Accept our prayers with tenderness, with goodwill.
Turn us, O Lord, toward You, that we may return to You in repentance.
Don’t cast us away from Your presence and Your holy spirit—don’t remove it from our midst.
Don’t cast us away at the time of old age; don’t abandon us as our strength ebbs away from us.
[Give ear to our words, understand our thoughts. Let the words of our mouths and our hearts’ meditations find favor with You, Lord, our rock, our liberator.]
Don’t forsake us, Lord, our God; do not distance yourself from us. [Give us a sign of good things to come. Let our enemies observe it, and be embarrassed. You are our help, our comfort; we wait on You, O Lord; Lord, our God, we wait for Your response.]
Our God, God of our fathers, let our prayer come before You. Do not hide Yourself from our supplications. We are not so brazen or so without self-knowledge as to plead before You, Lord, our God and God of our fathers, that we are guiltless or without sin. For in reality both our ancestors and we were and are culpable—sinful.
We have trespassed the boundaries of the Law. We have betrayed; we have robbed; we have slandered and defamed; we have sinned beyond sin; we have become wicked; we have become violent; we have imputed mendacity to others; we have given improper counsel; we have spoken falsehoods; we have mocked our fellows; we have been rebellious; we have rejected good counsel; we have been disloyal; we have been base and vile; we have behaved like criminals; we have become aggressive; we have been stiff-necked; we have become corrupt; we have erred; we have caused others to err.
[We have turned our backs on Your commandments and on Your sure judgments, to no avail. Though You have been just in all that has transpired in our lives—Your deeds are framed in truthfulness—we nevertheless have embraced wickedness.]
We have been wicked and sinful, and therefore we have not been saved. Prepare our hearts to abandon the paths of wickedness and hasten to bring us our liberation; as Your prophet wrote, “Let the wicked man leave his path, and the sinner his schemes, and return to the Lord, and He will have mercy on him, and let him return to our God, for God is generous in His compassion.”
In the Psalms, David, Your righteous anointed one, said before Your presence, “Who can understand unintended error? Cleanse me from secret faults.”...
For mercy and forgiveness are with the Lord our God.
Your name: Merciful God.
Your name: Gracious God.
Our name is bonded with Your name.
O Lord, act for the sake of Your name.
Act for Your sake, if not for ours!
Act for Your sake, and help us!
Answer us, O Lord, answer us!
Answer us, our God, answer us....
MI SHE'ANA L'AVRAHAM–HU YA'ANENU
May He who answered our father Abraham on Mount Moriah, answer us!
Merciful One, who answers the prayers of the poor, answer us! Merciful One, who answers the prayers of the brokenhearted, answer us! Merciful One, who answers the prayers of those of wounded spirit, answer us! Merciful One, answer us! Merciful One, have pity on us! Merciful One, save us! Merciful One, release us! Merciful One, have mercy on us—now, soon, in our own time!
You wound, and You heal.
You bring death, and You rescue from the grave toward eternal life....
[Heal the pains that have assaulted us] so that we do not utterly perish in the prison that is our exile.
You angels; you who present pleas for mercy to the master of mercy, present our pleas before him.
Lord of our salvation, answer us quickly. Redeem us from evil decrees; save us with Your generous mercy—us, Your people, as well as Your truly anointed one.
Master of the heavens, we beseech You as a prisoner would his captor....
Master of the heavens, we beseech You as a slave would his master. We are so much oppressed that we exist in bleak darkness. Our souls have become embittered, and we are in great distress. We no longer have the physical power even to implore You properly, our Master.
Help us for the sake of the eternal covenant that You established with our ancestors.
Guardian of Israel, safeguard the remnants of Israel and let them not be abandoned and lost, those that declare: “Listen, O Israel...”
Guardian of Israel, safeguard the remnant of that singular people and let them not be abandoned and lost, those who declare the unity of Your name—The Lord is our God, the Lord is One!
Guardian of a holy nation, safeguard the remnant of that holy people, and let them not be abandoned and lost, those who three times daily declare Your threefold holiness.
[You who are placated by prayers for mercy and moved by supplications, be accepting of the prayers and supplications of an impoverished generation; for there is none but You to help.]
Our Father, our King, be gracious to us and answer us, for we have no good deeds to speak for us. Relate to us with righteousness and loving-kindness and be of a help to us.
KADDISH SHALEM ("HASSIDIC KADDISH")
Magnified and sanctified be His great name throughout the world which He hath created according to His will. And great is His glorious Creation! And may His kingdom come during our lives and days, and during the life of all the House of Israel. May His Kingdom come, His will be done on earth as in heaven. Speedily, soon, and let us say amen.
May His great name be worshiped. O worshiped be His holy name, forever and to all eternity.
Worshiped and praised, and glorified and exalted and extolled, and honored and magnified and lauded be the name of the Holy One, praised be He. Though He be beyond all worship and songs and praises and consolations that can be uttered in this world, and let us say amen.
May the supplications and petitions of all Israel be accepted before our Father in heaven. Will all present here assent by saying amen.
May there be abundant peace for us and for all Israel; and those praying here signal assent and say amen.
May He who establishes peace in His high place establish peace for us and for all Israel; and those praying here signal assent and say amen.
zohalim (Track 4) - Dale Lind
Sh'ma kolenu (Track 11) - Music Sales Corp